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-ñña knowing -ññu knowing; recognizing ababa the name of a hell, or place in Avīci, where one suffers for an ababa of years ābādha affliction, pain, distress; sickness, disease ābādhati oppresses, molests; pains, distresses ābādhayati oppresses; afflicts ābādheti (from ābādha) oppresses; afflicts ābādhika sick, ill; in distress ābādhikinī (from ābādhika) sick, ill; in distress ābādhita afflicted; troubled abalabala very foolish, very feeble; babbling (?) abaḷabaḷa very foolish, very feeble; babbling (?) abbahana (from abbahati) pulling out, drawing out abbahati tears up or off; pulls out, draws out abbahi null abbāhi null abbahitvā null abbāhitvā having torn up; having pulled out, having drawn out abbajati comes to, returns to abbha a cloud; a thundercloud abbhācikkhanta null abbhācikkhati accuses (falsely); slanders; misrepresents abbhācikkhi null abbhācikkhiṁ null abbhāgamana coming, arrival; approach abbhāgata come; arrived (as a guest); an (uninvited) guest abbhaghana a mass of clouds; a thick cloud abbhāghātanissita situated near a place of execution abbhāhata struck; afflicted (with); impeded abbhakkhāna false accusation; slander abbhamatta (of) the size of a cloud abbhamātta (of) the size of a cloud abbhāna the act of rehabilitation of a bhikkhu who has been temporarily expelled; re-admittance abbhañjana rubbing with oil, smearing, oiling, lubricating; unguent, oil abbhañjati anoints; smears; lubricates abbhañjiṁsu null abbhañjitvā null abbhaññāsi null abbhaññāsuṁ null abbhantara (adjective) interior, internal; being within, included in, among; belonging to one ‘s house, personal, intimate abbhantarapassaya resting inside, in the heart abbhantarika intimate; trusted abbhantarima being far within; inner, innermost; very intimate abbhanujānāti concedes; agrees with (genitive) about (acc) abbhanumodati accepts with thanks; approves, praises; assents to abbhanumodi null abbhanumodita (from abbhanumodati) one who approves; one who praises abbhanumoditar (from abbhanumodati) one who approves; one who praises abbhasama like a cloud; high as the sky abbhasampilāpa a massing together of clouds abbhatireka excessive; very great abbhatīta (passive) overstepped, transgressed; neglected; passed (by) abbhatthaṁ towards home, towards setting abbhatthaṁ gacchati disappears, comes to an end abbhatthaṁ yāti disappears, comes to an end abbhenta null abbhetabba null abbheti summons; recalls, rehabilitates a bhikkhu who has been temporarily expelled abbhiññāsi null abbhita recalled, rehabilitated abbhokāsa an open space, the open; (a place in) the open air: abbhokāsi (an ascetic or bhikkhu) living in the open, in the open air abbhokāsika (an ascetic or bhikkhu) living in the open, in the open air abbhokāsin (an ascetic or bhikkhu) living in the open, in the open air abbhu an exclamation of horror or fright or aversion abbhucittajāta astonished abbhudāhasi (he) uttered, introduced (a subject of conversation) abbhudayati rises (as the sun); rises over abbhudeti rises (as the sun); rises over abbhudīrayati raises (the voice); utters abbhudīrayi null abbhudīresuṁ null abbhudīreti raises (the voice); utters abbhuggacchati goes forth, goes out; goes out to meet; rises; spreads abroad abbhuggacchi null abbhuggacchissati null abbhuggacchuṁ null abbhuggahetvā pulling up abbhuggañchi null abbhuggañchīti null abbhuggañchuṁ null abbhuggantvā null abbhuggata gone forth; gone out to meet; risen; spread abroad (about, accusative or genitive), generally heard abbhujjalana breathing out fire, spitting fire abbhukkirati sprinkles; besprinkles; scatters up over abbhuṁ an exclamation of horror or fright or aversion abbhunnadita resounding; made to resound abbhunnamati rises; springs up abbhunnameti holds up, raises; makes erect abbhunnāmeti holds up, raises; makes erect abbhunnamitvā null abbhussahana effort, exertion, endeavor; encouragement abbhussakkamāna rising towards; ascending to abbhussukkamāna rising towards; ascending to abbhusūyaka indignant at, impatient of abbhuta (adjective) astonishing, wonderful; out of the ordinary, strange abbhutadhamma the name of one of the nine categories (aṅgas) of the scriptures abbhutaṁ is used often as an exclamation (frequently combined with acchariyam): how wonderful! what an astonishing thing! abbhutaṁ karoti makes a wager; lays a bet abbhuṭṭhāsi null abbhuṭṭhāti rises to go towards; starts for abbhuyyāsi null abbhuyyāta who has marched out (against, accusative) abbhuyyāti marches against abbocchinna uninterrupted; unbroken abbudda (neuter) a swelling abbuhana (from abbahati) pulling out, drawing out abbūhana (from abbahati) pulling out, drawing out abbuhati tears up or off; pulls out, draws out abbūhati tears up or off; pulls out, draws out abbuhi null abbuhitvā null abbuḷha drawn out; pulled out; removed abbūḷha drawn out; pulled out; removed abbuḷhasalla with the dart or barb removed abbūḷhasalla drawn out; pulled out; removed abbuyha null ābhā splendor, radiance, light; resemblance, appearance ābharaṇa ornament; decoration abhāsitvā uttering; having spoken ābhassara shining, radiant ābhata brought, carried; handed down, transmitted ābhaṭa brought, carried; handed down, transmitted ābhāti shines; irradiates, illumines abhejja not to be broken or pierced; not to be alienated or severed; not to be set at variance ābheti shines; irradiates, illumines abhi-uggañchi null abhi-uggantvā null abhi-uyyāta who has marched out (against, accusative) abhibhakkayitvā eating; having eaten abhibhavana overcame (?) abhibhāyatana sphere of mastering; area of control (one of six or eight stages in overcoming reactions to objects of the senses) abhibhosmi I have overcome; I am master over abhibhū vanquishing, overcoming; one who surpasses; a master, a sovereign abhibhūta overcame; vanquished abhibhuyya having overcome; having surpassed; victorious abhibhuyyacāri wandering victorious abhibhuyyacārin wandering victorious abhicaraṇa visiting, frequenting abhicchanna covered (with) ābhicetasika mental, concerned with consciousness; or concerned with higher consciousness, superior thought abhichanna covered (with) abhidanta against the teeth or the upper teeth abhidantaṁ against the teeth or the upper teeth abhidhamati blows at or on (metal) abhidhamma the name (of the analytic exposition) of the third pitaka of the Buddhist Canon abhidhammakatha discourse about the doctrine or about dhamma abhidhamme as regards the doctrine; as regards the dhammas abhidhāvati runs towards; rushes against; hurries abhidhāvi null abhidhāyi speaking; expressing abhidhāyin speaking; expressing abhido near, towards abhidosaṁkālakata having died last evening abhidosaṁkālaṅkata having died last evening abhidosika of the previous evening, of last night ābhidosika of the previous evening, of last night ābhidosiya of the previous evening, of last night abhigajja null abhigajjat null abhigajjati roars; thunders, cries out (in greeting) abhigajji crying out (in greeting) abhigajjin crying out (in greeting) abhigāmi approaching; going to abhigāmin approaching; going to abhigijjhati craves, is greedy (for, locative) abhihāra bringing; offering, present abhiharati fetc.hes, brings; offers; brings forward, advances; brings near, fetc.hes for oneself, partakes of abhihārayati goes to, visits; takes oneself to; attains abhihārayi made offer; has brought; sent a present abhihārayiṁ null abhihāresi null abhihāreti goes to, visits; takes oneself to; attains abhihariṁsu null abhihariyitthā null abhihāsana gladdening, delighting abhihasati is excited; rejoices in the prospect of abhihata hit, struck; afflicted abhihaṭa brought; offered, presented abhihaṭṭhuṁ null abhihiṁsamāna hurting abhijānā null abhijānānta null abhijānāt null abhijānāti recognizes, knows; understands abhijañña null abhijappa muttering (of a prayer or spell) abhijappā praying for; desire; longing abhijappana muttering spells over; bewitching abhijappapadāraṇa the arrow of desire abhijappati mutters prayers to, supplicates; prays for, longs for, covets abhijappayati mutters prayers to, supplicates; prays for, longs for, covets abhijappi praying for; desiring abhijappin praying for; desiring abhijāta born; well-born, of noble birth abhijāti class of birth, nature; class of being abhijavati hurries towards abhijāyati is born; is born for or to; becomes abhijāyitvā null abhijigiṁsati tries to win; wishes to overcome abhijigīsati tries to win; wishes to overcome abhijīvanika providing a livelihood abhijjhā longing for; covetousness abhijjhālu covetous abhijjhāta one who covets abhijjhātar one who covets abhijjhati longs for; covets abhijjhāyanta null abhijjhāyati longs for, covets abhijjhāyiṁsu null abhijjhita one who covets abhijjhitar one who covets abhikāmi very much desiring abhikāmin very much desiring abhikaṅkhamāna null abhikaṅkhanta null abhikaṅkhat null abhikaṅkhati longs for, desires; waits for abhikaṅkhatt null abhikirati scatter over; to sprinkle abhikīrati scatter over; to sprinkle abhikkama going forward, approach; advance; worsening abhikkamana going forward; advance abhikkamanīya null abhikkamanta null abhikkamati goes forward, approaches; advances, progresses; gets worse (of pain or disease) abhikkāmi null abhikkāmuṁ null abhikkanta (adjective) arrived; having approached abhikkantadassāvi of excellent vision abhikkantadassāvin of excellent vision abhikkantaṁ (as exclamation of admiration, generally repeated:) excellent! wonderful! abhikkantatara more or most excellent; more beautiful abhikkantavaṇṇa of wonderful beauty abhikkhaṇa digging abhikkhaṇaṁ repeatedly, again and again; constantly abhikkhaṇaṁātaṅka constantly ailing abhikkhaṇanta null abhikkhaṇati digs up abhilābhi obtaining abhilābhin obtaining abhilakkhita marked out, indicated; characterized; appointed; distinguished abhilāpa speaking; word, expression; name, designation abhilāsi wishing for, desiring abhilāsin wishing for, desiring abhilepana plaster; bird-lime abhimaddati crushes; oppresses; destroys abhimaddita crushed, oppressed; destroyed abhimana with one’s mind directed towards (accusative) abhimaṅgalasammata considered auspicious abhimanthati churns, rotates (to make fire); rubs, grinds; afflicts, hurts abhimanthenta churning, making rotate abhimatthana rotating, rubbing together abhimatthati churns, rotates (to make fire); rubs, grinds; afflicts, hurts abhimatthenta churning, making rotate abhinadati make a noise, sounds abhinanda null abhinandamāna null abhinandana welcome; pleasure, delight abhinandat null abhinandati rejoices at, welcomes; approves of; is pleased at abhinandi null abhinandiṁsu null abhinandita (adjective) welcomed; liked abhinanduṁ null abhinata bent towards; inclined towards abhiṇata bent towards; inclined towards ābhindati splits; cleaves abhinetabba null abhineti leads near; brings to; summons abhiṇhadassana frequently seeing abhiṇhaṁ repeatedly, again and again; constantly abhiṇhaṁāpattika repeatedly committing an offense abhiṇhaṁdassana frequently seeing abhiṇhaṁkāraṇa continuous training abhiṇhaṁsannipāta holding frequent assemblies abhiṇhasannipāta holding frequent assemblies abhiṇhaso frequently; repeatedly, again and again abhinibbajjayati avoids; shuns abhinibbatta resulting; produced; reborn abhinibbattaka producing, causing to come into being abhinibbattati results (from); is produced; becomes, is reborn abhinibbattaya null abhinibbattayat null abhinibbattayati (also abhinibbatteti) produces; causes to come into being abhinibbattenta null abhinibbattesuṁ null abhinibbatteti (also abhinibbattayati) produces; causes to come into being abhinibbatti production; becoming; birth, rebirth abhinibbhidā bursts through; breaks out abhinibbhijja splitting asunder; breaking through abhinibbhijjati bursts through; breaks out abhinibbijja finding out; examining, analyzing; or piercing through abhinibbijjayati avoids; shuns abhinibbutatta with thoughts calmed; with self quenched abhiniddisati points out, indicates, characterizes abhiniggaṇha null abhiniggaṇhanā taking a hold of abhiniggaṇhat null abhiniggaṇhāti takes hold of; holds fast, restraints abhiniggaṇhitabba null abhinihanati strikes, hits abhinīhanati knocks out abhinīhāra stretc.hing out, moving (towards); intended action, firm intention; scheme abhinīharati draws out; stretc.hes out (towards); moves (thought) out abhinikkhamana coming out; going out, leaving a worldly life abhinikkhamati goes out, comes out; especially goes out from a worldly life, retires from the world abhinikkhamitvā null abhinikkhamma null abhinīla-m-āyata very black and long abhinīlanetta with very dark eyes abhinimantana an invitation abhinimanteti invites (someone, accusative) to (instrumental); offers abhinimmadana subduing; controlling abhinimmina forming, creating (by magic) abhinimminanta null abhinimmināti creates (by magic or supernatural power); produces, forms, shapes abhinimmini null abhinimminitvā null abhinimmitvā null abhininnāmesi null abhininnāmesiṁ null abhininnāmeti bends; stretc.hes out; directs (towards, dative/genitive) abhinipajjāpeti forces to lie down (on, accusative) abhinipajjati lies down on, lies down beside or with (+ accusative or locative) abhinipajjayamāna null abhinipajjitabba null abhinipātana throwing down; striking abhinipāti falling upon, rushing at abhinipātin falling upon, rushing at abhinipphādenta null abhinipphādesi null abhinipphādesuṁ null abhinipphādeti produces; effects; makes appear; obtains abhinipphādita produced; obtained abhinipphajjati arises, is produced abhinipphanna produced; accomplished abhinippīḷana pressing abhinippīḷaya null abhinippīḷayat null abhinippīḷayati presses; crushes; oppresses, troubles abhinippīḷetabba null abhinippīḷeti presses; crushes; oppresses, troubles abhinipuṇa very clever, very acute abhiniropanā applying, fixing (of thought) abhinisīdanta null abhinisīdāpeti forces to sit on abhinisīdati sits down beside or on (accusative or locative) abhinisīdeti forces to sit on abhinisīdi null abhinisīdiṁsu null abhinisīditabba null abhinisīdituṁ null abhinisīditvā null abhinisīdiyamāna null abhinisinna (act.) sitting upon (accusative) abhinissaṭa gone from; detached from abhinīta brought near, summoned; brought to (a parlous state), brought low abhinivajjayati avoids; renounces; throws down abhinivajjeti avoids; renounces; throws down abhinivajjetvā null abhinivatteti gives up, abandons abhinivaṭṭeti gives up, abandons abhinivattetvā null abhinivesa devotion, adherence to, intentness on (locative); inclination (especially to something bad); insistence, conviction (especially of what is not true) abhiniveseti adheres to applies oneself to abhinivisati enters, settles in; devotes oneself to, is intent on, adheres to (accusative or locative); is convinced, insists (on what is not true) abhinivissa null abhinivuttha having lived in abhinivuṭṭha having lived in abhinivutthapubba having previously lived in abhiññā higher or special knowledge; true understanding abhiññāta known, understood abhiññātakolañña of distinguished family abhiññatara wiser, more knowledgeable abhiññāvosita perfected through higher knowledge abhiññāya null abhiññeyya null abhipāleti protects; watches over abhipassa null abhipassat null abhipassati sees, looks for; regards, takes as; recognizes abhipatthaya null abhipatthayana null abhipatthayat null abhipatthayati longs for, wishes; desires abhipattheti longs for, wishes; desires abhipatthita longed for, desires abhippahāri striking, attacking abhippahārin striking, attacking abhippakirati scatters over, strews over, covers (completely) abhippalambati hangs down (over) abhippamodati rejoices (in) abhippamodaya null abhippamodayat null abhippasādeti makes well-disposed (towards); makes have confidence (in) abhippasanna well disposed (towards); having faith or confidence (in, locative, sometimes genitive) abhippasāreti stretc.hes out towards abhippasīdati has faith or confidence (in, locative); is well-disposed (towards, locative) abhippasīdiṁsu null abhippavaṭṭa (act.) having rained abhippavaṭṭha (act.) having rained abhippavuṭṭha (act.) having rained abhipphuṭṭha irradiated abhiraddha (adjective) satisfied, pleased; conciliated; successful abhirādhana satisfaction abhirādhi pleasing, giving satisfaction abhirādhin pleasing, giving satisfaction abhirādhita successfully attained abhirāja supreme king abhirājan supreme king abhirama delight; pleasure abhiramanā delight, content abhiramaṇā delight, content abhiramanta null abhiramāpana gladdening, entertaining; causing to find pleasure (in); producing contentedness abhiramati delights (in); finds pleasure (in); is content; has sexual intercourse (with, saddhiṁ + instrumental) abhirami null abhiramiṁ null abhiramittha null abhiranta null abhirata finding delight (in); content (with, locative or ifc) abhiratarūpa absolutely content abhirati pleasure, delighting (in, locative or ifc.); contentment abhiratta excited, impassioned abhiropayati causes to rise; plants; puts on, fixes on, fastens (especially on a thūpa)/ presents as an offering abhiropeti causes to rise; plants; puts on, fixes on, fastens (especially on a thūpa)/ presents as an offering abhirucita pleasing, agreeable, approved abhiruhana climbing (on to); embarking abhirūhana climbing (on to); embarking abhirūhanta null abhiruhati ascends, climbs; climbs on to or into; embarks (on); steps on abhirūhati ascends, climbs; climbs on to or into; embarks (on); steps on abhiruhi null abhirūhi null abhirūhitabba null abhiruhitvā null abhirūhitvā null abhirūhiya null abhirūḷha (act.) having climbed on to; mounted (on) abhirūpa handsome; beautiful abhirūpatara more beautiful abhisaddaha null abhisaddahanta null abhisaddahat null abhisaddahati has faith, believes (in, genitive personae, accusative rei) abhisajati reviles; offends abhisajjanā offense; (or attachment) abhisajjati sticks, is attached; is occupied; lingers abhisajji null ābhisallehika concerned with austerity, with strict abstinence abhisallekhika concerned with austerity, with strict abstinence abhisamācāra good conduct abhisamācārika belonging to good conduct (the minimum of decent behavior), proper; relating to the basic discipline; belonging to the basic or minor discipline ābhisamācārika belonging to good conduct (the minimum of decent behavior), proper; relating to the basic discipline; belonging to the basic or minor discipline abhisamācita heaped together; accumulated abhisamaya penetration into; right understanding (of) abhisambhavana (from abhisambhavati) mastering abhisambhavati reaches, attains; is able, capable (of); is adequate; masters; endures, bears abhisambhavitvā null abhisambhonta null abhisambhosi null abhisambhoti reaches, attains; is able, capable (of); is adequate; masters; endures, bears abhisambhū (from abhisambhavati) mastering abhisambhutvā having mastered; having endured; having bore abhisambodha perfect understanding; awakening abhisambodhi perfect understanding (of a Buddha); complete awakening abhisambuddha (adjective) (act.) having understood; having attained complete understanding; become a Buddha abhisambudhāna understanding; realizing abhisambujjhati attains perfect or complete understanding (of); becomes a Buddha abhisambujjhiṁsu null abhisambujjhitvā null abhisamecca null abhisamesuṁ null abhisameta understood; grasped abhisametāvi who has understood; understanding clearly abhisametāvin who has understood; understanding clearly abhisameti attains; grasps; understands abhisametvā null abhisaṁhati is excited; rejoices in the prospect of abhisamita understood; grasped abhisamparāya future fate, condition in one’s next rebirth abhisamparāyaṁ in a future state; in the next existence abhisaṁvisati attaches oneself to; clings to abhisañcetayati thinks out, plans abhisañcetayita thought out, planned abhisañchanna completely covered abhisandahati puts or places together; arranges abhisandahitvā null abhisandayati makes overflow; floods, drenches abhisandeti makes overflow; floods, drenches abhisaṅgi sticking to, attached to abhisaṅgin sticking to, attached to abhisaṅkhacca null abhisaṅkhāra preparation; development; performance; accumulation of motive force (as a result of action), impetus abhisaṅkharesi null abhisaṅkhareti causes to be prepared, created; forms abhisaṅkhāri null abhisaṅkhārika specially prepared; produced artificially abhisaṅkhārituṁ null abhisaṅkharitvā null abhisaṅkharo null abhisaṅkharot null abhisaṅkharoti plans, prepares; creates, constructs, concocts; accumulates; produces a motive force (as a result of action) abhisaṅkhāsi null abhisaṅkhata planned, prepared, arranged; concocted, constructed, produced artificially; accumulated abhisaṅkhaṭa planned, prepared, arranged; concocted, constructed, produced artificially; accumulated abhisaṅkhita planned, prepared, arranged; concocted, constructed, produced artificially; accumulated abhisaṅkhitta heaped together, collected; concentrated, condensed abhisanna flooded, drenched; filled (with), overflowing abhisaññanirodha cessation of perception, of awareness abhisantāpaya null abhisantāpayat null abhisantāpetabba torments; afflicts abhisantāpeti torments; afflicts abhisantāyati torments; afflicts abhisāpa curse; term of abuse abhisapanta null abhisapati curses, puts a curse on; swears abhisāpayati cursed abhisāpeti cursed abhisapi null abhisapita cursed; reviled abhisapitvā null abhisaṭa (passive) visited; approached abhisatta ordered, controlled abhiseka worthy of inauguration as king ābhiseka worthy of inauguration as king abhisekika belonging to or used for the inauguration (of a king) ābhisekika belonging to or used for the inauguration (of a king) abhisekiya belonging to or used for the inauguration (of a king) abhisevana pursuit of; indulgence in abhisiñcapeti causes to be inaugurated; has made king or queen abhisiñcati sprinkles; sprinkles (with water) to inaugurate as king or queen; consecrates abhisiñcayati sprinkles; inaugurates (as king) abhisiñciṁsu null abhisitta sprinkled; inaugurated (as king or queen) abhisobhita adorned; looking bright abhissanna flooded, drenched; filled (with), overflowing abhitāḷita struck abhitāpa extreme heat or pain abhitatta scorched; distressed, exhausted (by heat) abhiṭhāna a deadly crime (one of the six great crimes: mātughāta, pitughāta, arahantaghāta, lohituppāda, saṅghabheda, aññasatthāruddesa) abhitiṭṭhati stands supreme over; overpowers; surpasses abhito near, in the presence of (+ accusative or genitive); round about, on both sides (of, accusative) abhitosaya null abhitosayat null abhitosayati gratifies; delights abhittharati makes haste abhitthavati praises; praises (someone in their presence) abhitthavi null abhivada null abhivādana respectful greeting; salutation abhivādanasīlī habitually respectful abhivādanasīlīn habitually respectful abhivādāpayati causes to salute; asks for greeting or good wishes abhivādāpetabba null abhivādāpeti causes to salute; asks for greeting or good wishes abhivadat null abhivadati addresses (respectfully), salutes; welcomes; approves of abhivādayati addresses reverently; greets; salutes respectfully abhivādayitvā null abhivaḍḍhati increases, grows more and more; grows higher than, outgrows (+ accusative) abhivaḍḍhi null abhivādenta null abhivādesi null abhivādesiṁ null abhivādesuṁ null abhivādetabba null abhivādeti addresses reverently; greets; salutes respectfully abhivādetvā null abhivadiṁ null abhivādimha null abhivadita saluted abhivādita saluted abhivaditabba null abhivagga a sort of portcullis or large spiked defensive weapon abhivandati salutes respectfully abhivandita saluted; greeted with honor abhivaṇṇayati praises; describes abhivaṇṇeti praises; describes abhivasana clothing, clothes abhivasanavaratara the very best of clothing, choice clothes abhivassa rain; a shower abhivassaka raining, pouring out abhivassat null abhivassati rains, rains down (upon, accusative); showers abhivaṭṭha rained upon abhivihacca dispersing, removing; having destroyed abhivijināti overpowers; wins; is victorious abhivijinituṁ null abhivijinitvā null abhivijiya null abhivinaya higher discipline; the discipline in detail or analyzed abhivinaye as to the Vinaya; as regards the discipline abhivindati finds; obtains abhivinde null abhiviññāpesi null abhiviññāpeti begs, entreats; solicits (from); induces (to do something) abhivirājetvā being completely free from desire abhivisajati pours forth; gives away, dispenses abhivisaji null abhivissattha trusting; confident in abhivitarati goes through, finds out for certain; is sure abhivitaritvā null abhivuṭṭha (passive) rained upon abhiyācati asks; entreats abhiyaṁsu null abhiyāti goes against, attacks; approaches abhiyiṁsu null abhiyobbana early youth abhiyogi applying oneself to; practiced in, expert abhiyogin applying oneself to; practiced in, expert abhiyuñjati applies oneself to; lays (legal) claim to; claims something (accusative) from someone (accusative), makes someone responsible (for, accusative) ābhoga enjoyment, satiety; fullness, completion abhu an exclamation of horror or fright or aversion ābhujitvā having turned back abhuṁ an exclamation of horror or fright or aversion ābhuñjitvā having turned back acakkhuka without sight; blind; without insight, without understanding ācama sipping; rinsing ācāmabhakkha drinking the water in which rice has been boiled; whose food is rice-gruel ācamakumbhī a rinsing vessel (holding water) ācamana rinsing; sipping (water, for purification); washing ācamanakumbhī a rinsing vessel (holding water) ācamanapādukā fixed shoes for the feet when washing ācamanasarāvaka a dish for holding water (for sipping or washing) ācamati sips (water, for purification); rinses (one’s mouth or one’s body) ācamayati sips (water, for purification); rinses (one’s mouth or one’s body) ācamayitvāna null ācametabba null ācameti sips (water, for purification); rinses (one’s mouth or one’s body) ācāmeti helps sip; helps wash ācamitabba null ācara null ācāra behavior, conduct, practice; good conduct, right way of behaving; rule of conduct; approaching ācāragocara good behavior and associations ācarat null ācarati acts, does; behaves; behaves oneself; practices, performs; uses, applies ācariṁsu null ācarinī a female teacher ācarita practices; performed ācaritabba null ācaritvā null ācariya a teacher; an instructor (of religious texts); a teacher or a master; in some skill; an authority ācariyabhariyā a teacher’s wife; a female teacher ācariyadhana a teacher’s fee ācariyaka subject of learning, doctrine; craft, profession; teaching ācariyakula a teacher’s house or family; a “school” ācariyamahāyuga a generation of teachers ācariyamatta (one) having the status of a teacher; like a teacher ācariyamuṭṭhi a teacher’s closed fist, the keeping something back from pupils ācariyapācariya teacher upon teacher; teacher and a teacher of teachers ācariyaparamparā the succession of teachers ācaya piling up; collection, accumulation; growth ācayagāmi leading to accumulation or growth ācayagāmin leading to accumulation or growth acc- is the usual form of the prefix ati- before vowels other than ī. In words of more than three syllables the vowel following acc- is often strengthened accādhāya putting on top of; on top of accagamā overcame accaguṁ surpassed, overcame accaṅkusa beyond the control of the goad accanta beyond the (usual) end or limit; excessive, very great; perpetual; absolute, complete; most commonly accantaṁ, adverb, excessively, exceedingly; perpetually. absolutely, completely accantabrahmacāri living the holy or celibate life absolutely, constantly accantabrahmacārin living the holy or celibate life absolutely, constantly accantadussīlya extremely bad conduct accantaniṭṭha of absolute, constant perfection or firmness accantapariyosāna having an absolute, constant ideal accantaruci having superior splendor, surpassing in splendor accantayogakkhemi having absolute, constant peace from exertion accantayogakkhemin having absolute, constant peace from exertion accāraddha undertaken or practiced excessively accāraddhaviriya (neuter) to great exertion accarucī null accāsanna very near; too near; very close accāsanne very near; too close accasarā give offense accasarī gave offense accatari null accatāri null accāvadanta null accāvadati speaks or addresses in an excessive or improper way; (tries to) surpass in speaking accāvadimha null accāvadittha null accaya after the lapse (of) at the end (of), after accāyata very much stretc.hed or extended; over-strung (opposite to atisithila); high, sharp accayati passes (of time), elapses; passes by, eludes; passes by, neglects accāyika urgent; pressing acceka urgent, pressing; irregular accekacīvara a robe or material for a robe given not at the usual time (because of pressing reasons of the giver) accepts is fitting, applies accha clear; pure, clean; pellucid; transparent acchādana covering, clothing, cloth; protection acchādāpetvā causing to put on; presenting; clothing (with) acchādayati covers; clothes or presents with (clothes, instrumental); puts on (clothes, accusative) acchādesi null acchādesuṁ null acchādetvā null acchādita clothed (with) acchakañjīka rice gruel acchanna clothed (with); covered acchara a wonderful thing, a marvel; amazement accharā a celestial nymph, a female divinity accharāsaṅghāta a finger-snap; a moment accharikā snapping of the fingers acchariya (adjective) wonderful, surprising, strange, marvelous; unusual, exceptional, of rare occurrence acchariyaṁ is used often as an exclamation (frequently combined with abbhutaṁ) how wonderful! what a wonderful thing! it’s a marvel! acchariyamanussa a wonderful exceptional man acchejja null accheti is; sits; remains, stays; continues (doing something); sits idle, sits doing nothing; (often used as an auxiliary with part, or absolutive) acchi null acchibaddha laid out in squares or laid out in strips acchijja null acchindāpesuṁ null acchindāpeti null acchindati tears off; removes, removes forcibly; tears away from; robs (someone, accusative or genitive); plunders; deprives (of) acchindi null acchindimsu null acchinditvā null acchinna removed forcibly, taken away; plundered acchinnacīvara whose robe has been taken away or stolen acchinnacīvaraka whose robe has been taken away or stolen acchisaṁ null acchitabba null acchodaka having clear water; clear water acchodi having clear water acchodika having clear water acchupeti inserts; puts on or in acchupīyati null accī a ray of light; a flame accīma flaming, glowing; brilliant accīmat flaming, glowing; brilliant accodāta too white, too pale accogāḷha too extravagant accokkaṭṭha (of a robe) pulled down too far accuggamamma rising out (of); being raised above accuggata risen out (of); raised high; high, tall; lofty; haughty accukkaṭṭha (a robe) pulled up too high accuṇha (adjective) very hot: too hot accussanna too thick; in lumps āceraka teachings; profession ācikkha null ācikkhana (from ācikkhati) telling; pointing out ācikkhat null ācikkhati tells, gives information about (something, accusative, to someone, genitive/dative); declares; makes known; describes; points out; assigns ācikkhi null ācikkhiṁsu null ācikkhissāṁ null ācikkhissāmi null ācikkhita declared, made known ācikkhitabba null ācikkhituṁ null ācikkhitvā null ācikkhitvāna null ācikkhiyamāna null ācinā null ācināt null ācināti accumulates; collects for oneself; heaps up āciṇṇa (passive) practiced; made a habit of, customary; usual; practice, habit, usage āciṇṇakappa customary practice; behavior following what was previously done acittaka without intention, without awareness acīvaraka (one) who has no bhikkhu’s robes ada eating; who eats adaka eating; who eats adaṁsu null ādāna taking, grasping; holding on to; attachment ādānasatta attached to grasping; or creature of attachment ādapayati makes take; makes accept ādapayi null ādapeti makes take; makes accept ādāsa a looking-glass; a mirror adasaka without a fringe ādāsaka a mirror ādāta one who takes, who receives ādātabba to be taken; to be undertaken; to be used ādātar one who takes, who receives ādātuṁ to grasp, to take; to seize ādāya (the adopting of) a belief, a view ādāyagamanīya (from ādāya gacchati, ‘he goes with, he takes ‘), to be gone with; to be taken; going with addavalepana newly plastered addha a path, road; a journey addhā certainly, for sure; truly; surely aḍḍha one half; a part addhābhavanta master of; governing; controlling addhabhaveti makes govern, lets control addhabhavi governed; controlled addhabhūta governed, mastered; dependent aḍḍhaduka a certain way of shaping the hair on the stomach addhagata old addhagū going on the road, walking, traveling; a traveler, a wayfarer addhāhina being under-age, too young aḍḍhakāsika made of a sort of luxurious cloth from Kāsi aḍḍhakāsiya made of a sort of luxurious cloth from Kāsi aḍḍhakāyika half one’s body aḍḍhakuḍḍaka a half-wall aḍḍhakumbhūpama like a half -filled pitcher aḍḍhakusi a short strip of cloth (part of a bhikkhu’s robe) addhāṁ (?) aḍḍhamaṇḍala a small panel (of a bhikkhu’s robe) aḍḍhamāsa a fortnight; half a month aḍḍhamāsika fortnightly addhan a path, road; a journey addhāna path, road; journey; time addhānakkhama enduring a long journey addhānamagga a road for journeying, a high road addhanīya fit for traveling aḍḍhapallaṅka a half crossed-legged posture, i.e. with one leg straight aḍḍharatta midnight aḍḍharattā midnight aḍḍharatti midnight addhariya a sacrificing priest; name of a class of brahmans aḍḍhateḷasa twelve and a half aḍḍhateyya two and a half aḍḍhaṭṭhama seven and a half aḍḍhavāda talk of wealth, talk of being rich aḍḍhayoga a certain kind of house addhāyu duration of life addhika traveler; a wanderer addhikaraṇavūpasamana the settling of a case or dispute addita distressed, pained, tormented addiyati is afflicted, distressed ādesanāpāṭihāriya the miracle or marvelous power of indicating (another’s thoughts or state of mind) ādesanavidhā a form or variety of indicating; (another’s thoughts or state of mind) ādesita shown; indicated ādeti takes, accepts, receives; takes up, undertakes; appropriates; seizes, grasps ādeva lamenting; deploring ādevanā lamenting; deploring ādevitatta wailing, lamenting, deploring ādeyyavācana whose speech is persuasive or influential ādeyyavākyavacana whose speech is persuasive or influential adhagama going downwards adhagāmi going downwards; going downstream adhagāmin going downwards; going downstream adhakkha (what) is below the collar-bone adhakkhaka (what) is below the collar-bone adhakkhakaṁ below the collar-bone adhama lowest, worst; most vile ādhāna depositing, placing; a container, a receptacle; establishing, kindling (afire) ādhānagāhin grasping, sticking to what has been laid down(?) obstinate ādhāra a support, prop; a holder, stand; that which contains, a vessel, a receptacle; the subject of discussion adharakaya the lower part of the body ādhātuṁ to place on; to fix, to settle; to establish; to accept, receive ādhāvati runs, runs towards, runs about ādhāvitvā null ādhāya having placed on; having fixed, settled; having established; having accepted, received ādhenta placing on; fixing, settling; establishing, kindling; accepting, receiving; adding (fuel to fire) ādheyya to be deposited or placed (in); being contained; to be assigned or entrusted; being the responsibility (of), being in the control (of) ādheyyamukha credulous; quickly convinced adhi as prefix to nouns (adjectives, adverbs) expresses: superiority, abundance adhibhoti overpowers, over comes; surpasses adhibhū one who overpowers; lord, master; conqueror adhibhūta overpowered adhibrahma a superior Brahmā; one higher than Brahmā adhibrahman a superior Brahmā; one higher than Brahmā adhicca (adjective) fortuitous, occurring by mere chance; rare adhiccāpattika rarely, or occasionally offending adhiccasamuppanna arisen fortuitously, without cause or reason; connected with fortuitous or causeless origination adhiccasamuppannika one who believes in fortuitous or causeless origination adhiceta attentive adhicetas attentive adhiciṇṇa thought out, pondered adhicittaṁ as regards though, as to meditation adhicittasikkhā training in (higher) thought, in meditation adhicitte in regards to thought, to meditation adhideva a superior or supreme god; one above the gods adhigā attains, finds; understands adhigacchati gets to; attains, acquires; finds; understands adhigacchi null adhigacchiṁ null adhigacchissaṁ null adhigaṁ null adhigama acquisition, attainment, especially attainment of a religious goal; understanding; realization adhigamanīya null adhigamissati null adhigamma null adhigañchi null adhigantabba null adhigantvā null adhigata (adjective) (passive) attained; found; understood adhiggahetvā null adhiggahita excelled; overpowered, possessed adhiggaṇhāti surpasses; excels; masters adhijegucchaṁ as regards what is detestable, as regards scrupulousness adhijegucche as regards what is detestable, as regards scrupulousness adhika exceeding, surpassing; superior, predominant; more; too much, in excess adhikāra service, help; act of merit adhikaraṇa subject of discussion or attention; case, legal question; dispute (in the saṅgha, to be formally dealt with) adhikaraṇakārika one who causes disputes or lawsuits adhikaraṇasamatha (a method) of settling a case or dispute adhikaraṇika disputatious adhikasatasahassa more than 100, 000 adhikusala of high merit adhikuṭṭana a chopping block adhimana ‘having the mind directed towards’, intent on, desiring; pleased; not anxious adhimāna an undue estimate of oneself, undue confidence in oneself. illusion; conceit adhimanassa ‘having the mind directed towards’, intent on, desiring; pleased; not anxious adhimānika having undue confidence in oneself an undue estimate of oneself; conceited adhimatta above measure, excessive; very great; greater adhimattakasimāna excessive leanness; serious emaciation adhimoceti makes incline to; sets on; makes enter (another’s body) adhimocita null adhimokkha faith, conviction; firm resolve, decision adhimuccamāna null adhimuccati inclines to; believes, is sure of; is convinced adhimucchita infatuated; clinging to (locative) adhimucci null adhimuccita one who believes; who is convinced adhimuccitar one who believes; who is convinced adhimuccitvā null adhimutta who is inclined to; applying oneself (to, accusative or locative); believing in; set on adhimuttacitta whose mind is so inclined, or has such a conviction ādhipacca (from ādhipati) sovereignty, supremacy; power, control adhipajjati falls into; attains adhipanna fallen into; having done wrong adhipaññāṁ as regards wisdom adhipaññāsikkhā training in (higher) wisdom adhipaññātti with regard to exposition adhipaññāya in regard to wisdom adhipāta making fall; injuring; (or splitting) adhipātaka flying insect; moth adhipatati falls on; rushes; against; attacks adhipātetvā having made fall; having laid low ādhipateyya (neuter) sovereignty, power; control, controlling influence adhipati lord; master; ruler; owner; controller; dominant influence adhipāti making fall; injuring; (or splitting) ādhipati lord, sovereign adhipātikā flying insect; moth adhipātimokkha the extension to the rule of discipline; the further code of discipline adhipātimokkhe concerning the code of discipline adhipātin making fall; injuring; (or splitting) adhipatitvā null adhipatthita desire, wished; longed for adhippāya meaning, intention; wish, desire adhippayāsa particular effort adhippeta meant; intended; desired, aimed at; referred to adhisallikhati is over scrupulous adhiseti lies down on adhisīlaṁ as regards to moral behavior adhisīlasikkhā training in (higher) moral behavior adhisīle in regard to morality adhisseti lies down on adhitiṭṭhati stands upon, depends upon; mounts; stands over, supervises; controls; designates, takes (formal) possession of (robe, bowl etc.); resolves on, fixes the mind on, undertakes; resolves, determines, produces (by supernatural power) adhiṭṭhaha null adhiṭṭhahanta null adhiṭṭhahat null adhiṭṭhahati stands upon, depends upon; mounts; stands over, supervises; controls; designates, takes (formal) possession of (robe, bowl etc.); resolves on, fixes the mind on, undertakes; resolves, determines, produces (by supernatural power) adhiṭṭhahi null adhiṭṭhahitva null adhiṭṭhāna support, basis; standpoint; abode; determination, resolution; fixing the mind on; determining, controlling, producing (by supernatural power); taking (formal) possession of, designating adhiṭṭhātabba null adhiṭṭhāti stands upon, depends upon; mounts; stands over, supervises; controls; designates, takes (formal) possession of (robe, bowl etc.); resolves on, fixes the mind on, undertakes; resolves, determines, produces (by supernatural power) adhiṭṭhātuṁ null adhiṭṭhāya null adhiṭṭheti stands upon, depends upon; mounts; stands over, supervises; controls; designates, takes (formal) possession of (robe, bowl etc.); resolves on, fixes the mind on, undertakes; resolves, determines, produces (by supernatural power) adhiṭṭhita (adjective)(passive) supervised; resolved on, undertaken; brought under control; possessed, designated, formally taken possession of; used adhivacana name, designation; metaphorical expression; near-synonym adhivacanapatha mode of expression adhivāhi bringing adhivāhin bringing adhivāsakajātika enduring or patient by nature adhivāsana endurance; forbearance adhivāsaya null adhivāsayat null adhivāsayati is patient, waits; bears patiently, endures; assents, gives in to; accepts (an invitation) adhivāsaye null adhivāsayeyya null adhivāsenta null adhivāsesi null adhivāsesuṁ null adhivāsetabba null adhivāseyya null adhivattati comes on; moves over; overwhelms adhivattha (act.) living in, inhabiting (locative) adhivimutti higher, superior release; as to release adhivivuttipada expression, saying; opinion, theory adhivuttha (act.) having accepted (an invitation) adhīyamāna null adhīyanta null adhīyitvā null adhiyyati studies; learns by heart; reads adho below; down; downwards (one of the ten disā); downstream adhobhāga the lower part; the lower part of the body, the anus adhobhāvaṅgamanīya tending to go downwards (to lower existences) adhojānumaṇḍalami what is below the knee-cap adhojānumaṇḍalamin what is below the knee-cap adhomukha with the face downward; with head bent; facing downward adhomukhaṁ downwards adhonābhiṁ below the navel; what is below the navel; see adho) adhosira with the head downward; headfirst adhovātaṁ downwind adhovāte downwind adhovirecana purging; purgative adhunā just now, lately, quite recently adhunāgata newly arrived (at); being a newcomer (to) adhunbhisita recently inaugurated adhunūpapanna recently reborn ādi beginning; starting point, cause ādibrahmacariya primary or fundamental morality; the higher holy life ādibrahmacariyaka concerning (the fundamentals of) the pure and holy life; belonging to primary or fundamental morality; forming a cause or beginning of the holy life ādibrahmacariyaṁ as regards a pure and holy life ādicca (masculine) the sun ādiccabandhu kinsman of the sun; of the “sun” lineage ādiccapatha the path of the sun; the sky ādikammika who is the first to perform a particular action ādikara who is the first to perform a particular action ādikatta the first performer, the originator ādikattar the first performer, the originator ādikena in the beginning; at once ādīnava wretc.hedness; bad consequence, disadvantage, danger (in, locative or genitive) ādīnavadassa seeing the danger ādīnavadassāvi seeing the danger, realizing the bad consequences ādīnavadassāvin seeing the danger, realizing the bad consequences ādīnavanupassi seeing the danger, realizing the bad consequences ādīnavanupassin seeing the danger, realizing the bad consequences ādinna taken, grasped; taken up, undertaken ādinnadaṇḍa who has taken a stick in hand; who administers justice; who has embraced violence ādiṇṇasipātika with split or burst seed pods ādippati blazing, burning; red-hot ādisanta null ādisati aims at; points out, indicates; relates, declares, foretells; dedicates; assigns (one’s own puñña to someone else) ādisitvā null ādiso from the beginning; at first; at the beginning; as a beginning ādissa aiming at; indicating; specifying; with reference to; assigning ādito from the beginning; at first; at the beginning; as a beginning āditta blazing, burning; red-hot ādiya null ādiyamāna null ādiyamukha credulous; quickly convinced ādiyanapaccayā because of the taking ādiyanta null ādiyapeti makes take; makes accept ādiyat null ādiyati takes, accepts, receives; takes up, undertakes; appropriates; seizes, grasps ādiyi null ādiyituṁ to grasp, to take; to seize ādiyitvā taking, receiving, with ādu or; introducing a second question or the second part of a disjunctive question adurāgata not unwelcome; welcome āga null āgā comes to; returns āgacchana returning āgacchanta null āgacchati comes, comes near; comes back, returns; reaches, attains; is recorded, is handed down by tradition āgacchi null āgacchiṁ null āgacchiṁsu null āgacchissati null āgacchuṁ null agadaṅgāra a medicinal ash or powder āgāḷha strong, severe; harsh, hard āgama (masculine) coming, approach; access; income, return āgamā null agāmaka where there are no villages; without habitation, uninhabited āgamaṁ null āgamaṁsu null āgamana coming, approach; return; progress; (iic also: approaching, future) āgamanadiṭṭhika with a belief in future consequences āgamanīya (from āgamana) connected with coming to; with returning āgamāsi null āgamāsiṁ null āgamayamāna null āgamayati waits, waits for; expects āgamenta null āgamesi null āgamesuṁ null āgametabba null āgameti waits, waits for; expects āgametvā null āgamha null āgamhā null āgami null āgāmi approaching; coming, future; returning; being reborn āgamiṁ null āgamin (from āgama) coming, approaching; next āgāmin approaching; coming, future; returning; being reborn āgamissati null āgamitthā null āgamma coming, having come; attained; owing to, with reference to, by means of āgamuṁ null āgañchi null āgañchiṁ null āgañchiṁsu null āgañchu null āgañchuṁ null agandhaka with no scent agaṇhanta null āganta one who comes, who returns; (as periphrastic future) will come, will return āgantabba to come āgantar one who comes, who returns; (as periphrastic future) will come, will return āgantuka (adjective) added, accessory; incidental adventitious, external āgantuṁ null āgantvā coming; having come, reached; returning agāra house; a dwelling place agārā house; a dwelling place āgāraka a small house; a cottage; a hut agāravasa household life āgārika belonging to a house; living in a house; a householder; a housewife; a lay person agārikabhūta (while) being a householder, leading a householder’s life agāriya belonging to a house; living in a house; a householder; a housewife; a lay person agariyabhūta (while) being a householder, leading a householder’s life agaru not burdensome; not difficult āgata (adjective) come, arrived, come back; present; having reached, attained; come down, handed down, learnt āgatāgama who has mastered the tradition; learned āgatāgata whenever he (she, it) comes; whoever comes āgatavisa with quickly rising poison āgati arrival, coming; return, rebirth agga (adjective) the first, foremost; topmost; better; excellent, illustrious; the best, chief (very often iic); (neuter) the best part; the ideal; a most excellent thing; the best of its class or type agga-m-agga the very best; the most excellent aggabīja a plant propagated by cuttings aggadana a gift of the best; the best gift aggadhamma the best doctrine; the best state or condition aggadvāra the top of the door or gate; (or the first gate opened; a way to leave the town secretly) aggahesi null aggahesiṁ null aggahesum null aggahetvā seizing aggahīta kept back aggakārikā (first or best action); a first taste; a sample aggakulika (one) belonging to the an esteemed or chief family aggala a bolt or bar for fastening a door (or window); the door-panel or door aggaḷa a bolt or bar for fastening a door (or window); the door-panel or door aggalaphalaka the panel of a door aggalasūci a bolt-pin, a bolt aggalaṭṭhapana the placing or vising of a door-bolt or door-panel aggalavaṭṭi the post to which the bolt is fastened agganagara a chief city; the chief city agganakha the tip of the nail aggaṅkuraka the top shoot aggañña (adjective) chief, principal; primitive, original aggapada the best word, the best teaching; the best state or place aggapaññati designation as best (of its class) aggapasāda the best trust; trust in the best aggapiṇḍa the first or best food aggappasāda the best trust; trust in the best aggapuggala the best of men aggapurisa the best or the preeminent person aggarasaparititta completely satisfied with the best flavored foods aggāsana the first or chief seat aggasavaka a chief disciple aggatā preeminence; chief position aggato before; in front; in the presence of aggava of great eminence, excellent aggavādi (one) who proclaims the highest, the best aggavādin (one) who proclaims the highest, the best aggavat of great eminence, excellent aggha price; worth agghanaka having the value of, worth agghanikā having the value of, worth agghāpenta valuing; putting a price on agghāpesi valued; put a price on agghati is worth, has the value of; deserves; frequently in phrase kalaṁ na agghati (soḷasiṁ), is not worth a (sixteenth) part (of) aggi fire; flames; conflagration aggi-m-āsīna sitting near a fire aggihoma oblation in the fire aggihutta the oblation to Agni, the rite of the fire oblation; the ritual fire aggihuttamissa various tools etc. for the fire-oblation aggihuttamukha for which the fire-oblation is the chief or foremost aggika (from aggi) one who tends the ritual fire aggikkhandha a great mass of fire; a huge blazing fire, a bonfire agginisama filled (to the brim) with fire; being a mass of fire; a mass of fire aggipajjota light from a fire aggipāricārika who tends the ritual fire aggipāricariyā attendance on, or care of, the ritual fire aggiparicitta damaged by fire aggiparijita null aggisādhārana subject to, vulnerable to, fire aggisālā a fire-room (where water is heated), a heated hall; a room for the ritual fire aggisikhā a flame; a crest of a fire aggiṭṭhāna a place for the fire; a fireplace, hearth aggiya (from aggi) one who tends the ritual fire aggupaṭṭhāka the chief personal (male) attendant agha (nominative m) wicked; pain, distress aghagāmi moving through the sky, through the space aghagāmin moving through the sky, through the space aghagata wicked; distress āghāta ill-will, hatred, resentment āghātana slaughter house; place of execution āghātapaṭivinaya repression of ill-will āghātavatthu occasion of ill-will; reason for resentment aghāvi being in misery; suffering pain aghāvin being in misery; suffering pain agiha homeless, without a house āgilāyati aches; is faint, feels tired āgu offense, wrong-doing āgū null āgucāri doing wrong; criminal āgucārin doing wrong; criminal āguṁ null agyāgāra a hut for the (ritual) fire(s) agyantarāya danger from fire aha day (followed by an other word in compounds it takes the form aho, as in ahoratta) āha (perfect, expressing present, past and indefinite time) says, speaks; tells; said, spoke; speaks about; calls, regards as; (to introduce objections) someone might say, it is said; 3 singular āha (and āhu) āhacca having hit, struck; beaten; came into contact with, reached āhacca tiṭṭhati reaches; touches, strikes āhaccapādaka with removable or insertable legs ahaha the name of a hell, or place in Avīci, where one suffers for an ahaha of years ahaṁ (singular) I, myself; the ego; (plural) we āhaṁsu null āhañchaṁ will hit, will strike; will beat; will come into contact with, will reach āhañhi will hit, will strike; will beat; will come into contact with, will reach āhañhiṁ will hit, will strike; will beat; will come into contact with, will reach ahaṇkāra the (false) conception of one’s individuality; pride, conceit ahaṇkārapasuta devoted to the theory of self-creation āhāra taking; food, nutriment, sustenance; fuel; support āharahattha (giving a) hold for the hands āharanta null āharāpayati causes to be taken or fetc.hed; sends for; demands āharāpeti causes to be taken or fetc.hed; sends for; demands āharāpetvā null āharati brings, fetc.hes, conveys; takes, collects; uses āhāraṭṭhika dependent upon food or sustenance āhāraya null āhārayamāna null āhārayat null āhārayati (also āhāreti) eats āharesi spoken; declared, related; quoted āhāresiṁ null āhareti brings, fetc.hes, conveys; takes, collects; uses āhāreti eats āhāretvā null āhari spoken; declared, related; quoted āharima added, accessory āhariṁsu see āharati) āhārisaṁ null āharissami null āharissati null āharit (from āharati) one who takes, uses; who eats āharita brought, taken, used āharitr (from āharati) one who takes, uses; who eats āharituṁ null āharitvā null āhariyati is brought or taken; is offered; is related āhariyitha (they) brought, offered āhariyyati is brought or taken; is offered; is related āhārupaccheda cutting off food; abstinence from food āhārupahāra taking and giving; dealings āhāsi spoken; declared, related; quoted āhata brought; conveyed; related, cited āhaṭa brought; conveyed; related, cited āhataka a servant āhatta one who brings āhattar one who brings āhattuṁ null āhatvā null ahetuka without a cause ahetukavāda holding a theory of non-causality ahi a snake ahicchattaka a mushroom ahimekhalikā a snake-girdle āhiṇḍanta null āhiṇḍati goes about; wanders āhiṇḍituṁ null ahirika (adjective) shameless ahirīka (adjective) shameless āhita fixed, established; kindled, provided with fuel ahivātakaroga a certain dangerous contagious disease ahivijjā serpent-lore aho an exclamation oh!, expressing a wish or a hope; oh that… !, would that … ! ahoratta a day and night ahorattaṁ day and night; continually ahorattanusikkhi continually studying; learning ahorattanusikkhin continually studying; learning ahoratti a day and a night āhu (perf. expressing present, past and indefinite time) says, speaks; tells; said, spoke; speaks about; calls, regards as; (to introduce objections) someone might say, it is said āhuna offering; honoring āhundarika dark, obscure, impenetrable (?) āhuneyya to be offered to or in; worthy of offerings āhuneyyaggi the oblation of fire āhuta produced, coming from āhuti offering; sacrifice aja a goat; (masculine) a male goat, a billy-goat ajā a female goat ajaddhuka abstinence (from eating) ajaddhumārikā death by starvation ājagamuṁ null ajaka a young goat ajalakkhaṇa signs of health or omen on a goat ājānamāna null ājananta null ājānāti understands; perceives ājāniṁsu null ājānissati null ājānituṁ null ājānitvā null ājānīya well-bred; thoroughbred, noble (of animals, especially horses; also of people); a thoroughbred ājānīyajjāyita the thoughts, preoccupations of a thoroughbred horse; ‘thoroughbred’ meditation ājañña a thoroughbred (especially of horses, but also of other animals and of men) ājaññaratha a carriage draw by thoroughbreds ajapada “goat-footed” cloven like a goat’s hoof ajapālaka a goatherd ajavisāṇavaddhikā with points like goats’ horns ājāyati is born ajeḷakā goats and sheep; (perhaps two kinds of goats?) ajikā (and ajiyā?) a young she-goat ajikākhīra goat’s milk ajikakkhāyita chewed by goats ajina the hairy skin of an animal; especially the skin of the black antelope (worn as a garment and used as a covering by ascetics) ajinakkhipa a cloak of antelope skin ajinappaveṇī a covering or rug made from pieces of antelope skin sewn together ajinasāṭī a garment made of skins ājīva livelihood; way of living; means of subsistence ājīvaka a naked ascetic (belonging to the community founded by Makkhali Gosāla) ājīvakinī (from ājīvaka) a female naked ascetic ājīvati make a living; lives by ājīvika a naked ascetic (belonging to the community founded by Makkhali Gosāla) ājīvikabhaya danger to one’s livelihood; fear concerning livelihood ājīvikābhaya danger to one’s livelihood; fear concerning livelihood ājīvikapakata induced by (the necessity of) obtaining a living ājīvikāpakata induced by (the necessity of) obtaining a living ajja today; now; just now; at the present time ajjadagge from this day onward ajjasaṭṭhim since six days ago, for six days ajjatā the present time ajjatagge henceforth; from this day forth ajjatana (adjective) referring or belonging to today; modern; present ājjava uprightness; straightness ajjh- is the form of the preverb adhi- before vowels except ī ajjhabhāsi addressed ajjhabhāsiṁ null ajjhabhāsiṁsu null ajjhabhavi null ajjhabhū null ajjhācāra misconduct, transgression (especially sexual) ajjhācarati practices, commits (an offense) ajjhācare as regards conduct ajjhāciṇṇa much practiced; habitually done ajjhagā null ajjhagaṁ null ajjhagamā null ajjhagamaṁ null ajjhagamaṁsu null ajjhagamiṁ null ajjhagaṁsu null ajjhagamuṁ null ajjhāgamuṁ they found ajjhāgāre at home, in one’s house ajjhagū null ajjhājapajjanta committing an offense; incurring; guilty of ajjhājapatti transgression; committing of (an offense) ajjhājīve as regards way of life ajjhāpanna (act.) who has committed, become guilty of (an offense) ajjhāpannaka one who has committed an offense ajjhappattā fallen upon or rushed at ajjhārāma the territory, grounds of a park ajjhārāme within a park or monastery ajjhārūha overgrowing, dominating, parasitical ajjhārūhati grows in and up over (as a parasite); spreads over, dominates ajjhāruḷha (passive) grown over, grown upon; spread over, dominated ajjhāsayaṁ as to the intention, state of mind ajjhatta (from ajjhattaṁ) inner; subjective; within oneself; what is internal; oneself ajjhattabahiddhā inwardly and outwardly; in regard to oneself and others ajjhattaṁ concerning oneself in oneself; inwardly, personally; in regard to oneself (opposite bahiddhā) ajjhattika personal; internal, inward; belonging to oneself (opposite bāhirā); what is personal, what belongs to oneself ajjhāvasa null ajjhāvasaṁ null ajjhāvasanta null ajjhāvasat null ajjhāvasatha the inside or environs of a house or dwelling ajjhāvasathe within a house or dwelling ajjhāvasati inhabits; dwells in, lives on (as ruler or owner); especially agāram ~ati, lives the settled life of a householder ajjhāvasī null ajjhāvuttha lived in, inhabited, occupied ajjhāyaka one who studies (the Vedas); a studious, learned person, a scholar ajjhena learning, study (especially of the Vedas); recitation ajjhesana request, entreaty (especially to expound or recite the dhamma) ajjhesati requests; asks (esp for instruction or recitation of the dhamma) ajjhesi null ajjhesitabba null ajjheti cares for, longs for, broods ajjhiṭṭha requested; asked (especially to preach the dhamma) ajjhiṭṭhapañha the question asked; the chosen question ajjhogāhati plunges into; enters; puts out (to sea) ajjhogāhitvā null ajjhogāḷha who has plunged into; entered; immersed ajjhogāḷhappatta immersed in, intimate ajjhohāra taking food; swallowing ajjhoharaṇa (from ajjhoharati) bringing down or near ajjhoharati brings down or near; puts in ajjhoharī null ajjhoharitabba to be eaten ajjhokāsa (from ajjhokāse) the open air ajjhokāsagata being in the open air ajjhokāse in the open air, in the open ajjhokirati bestrews; scatters down on ajjholambati hangs down (over) ajjhomaddati treads upon, crushes down ajjhomucchita swooning; clinging to (in longing) ajjhopanna addicted to, enthralled ajjhosa null ajjhosāna grasping, clinging to; relishing ajjhosati grasps, clings to; relishes ajjhosāya null ajjhosita (act.) attached to, grasping; being bent on ajjhositabba null ajjhotharīyati null ajjhottharati covers, spreads over; overwhelms, overpowers; threatens ajjhottharatitabba null ajjhupagacchati comes to, reaches, enters (a state); consents to, agrees ajjhupagamana (from ajjhupagacchati) consent, agreeing to ajjhūpagata (act.) who has come to, reached; entered upon; agreed to; gone over to ajjhupekkha null ajjhupekkhat null ajjhūpekkhati looks on without interfering; views with impartiality or disinterestedness; tolerates, condones ajjhupekkhiṁsu null ajjhupekkhita (from ajjhupekkhati) one who looks on with disinterestedness, detachment ajjhupekkhitabba null ajjhupekkhitar (from ajjhupekkhati) one who looks on with disinterestedness, detachment ajjhupekkhitvā null ajjhupesi null ajjhupeti goes to; approaches; goes to meet ajjhupeyyaṁ null ajjuka name of a plant, perhaps white basil ajjuṇho this day; the rest of this day and night akāca without impurity, without flaw; pure, clear; smooth akaddama free from mud; pure ākaḍḍhana (from ākaḍḍhati) dragging to, drawing towards; pulling, pulling about; drawing out; bending (a bow) ākaḍḍhanta null ākaḍḍhati drags, pulls; pulls near, draws (towards oneself), attracts; supplies (an omitted, understood word); draws out, brings about; bends (a bow); draws (a line), scratches ākaḍḍhitva null ākaḍḍhiyamāna dragging, pulling; pulling near, drawing (towards oneself) akakkasa not harsh; not rough; smooth akāla not the right time, not a suitable time (sometimes: nighttime) akālacāri traveling or going for alms at the wrong time, an an unsuitable time akālacārin traveling or going for alms at the wrong time, an an unsuitable time akālacīvara robe material given at a time other than the appointed period, or given during the appointed period to a specific bhikkhu or group of bhikkhus akalaha absence of quarreling; harmony akālamegha an unseasonable rain cloud; unseasonable rainy weather akālaññu null akālapuppha a flower appearing out of season; an unseasonable flower akālavādi speaking at the wrong time, at an unsuitable time akālavādin speaking at the wrong time, at an unsuitable time akāle not at the right time, at an unsuitable time (sometimes: at night); out of season akālena at the wrong time, at an unsuitable time akālika not dependent on time; not limited to a particular time; immediate, immediately effective akalla unhealthy; unfit; low in spirits; not sound akallarūpa in very poor spirits; unwell akalya unhealthy; unfit; low in spirits; not sound akalyaka ill; not fit akaṁ null akāma not so wishing; unwilling, reluctant akāmā against one’s will; whether one wishes it or not; without (previous) intention akāmaka unwilling; not wishing (to) akāmakāmi null akāmakāmin null akamma lack of action; not working; non-activity; not a proper or valid act of the saṅgha akammaniya not ready or fit for any act or use akammañña not ready or fit for any act or use akammāsa spotless; without blemish akampi not shaking, not trembling akampin not shaking, not trembling akampita not trembling; not shaken akampittha null akaṁsu null akaṇa without bran; with the bran removed akaṇha not dark, light; not evil akaṇika free from blemish akaniṭṭha the name of one of the highest classes of devas, the fifth class of suddhāvāsas akaniṭṭhagāmi going to the akaniṭṭha world akaniṭṭhagāmin going to the akaniṭṭha world akaṅkha without doubts, without uncertainty ākaṅkha null ākaṅkhamāna null ākaṅkhanta null ākaṅkhat null ākaṅkhati wishes; desires, longs for; wants to, is willing (to); intends akaṅkhi free from doubts, without uncertainty ākaṅkhiṁ null akaṅkhin free from doubts, without uncertainty ākaṅkhita wished for; desired ākaṅkhiya null akanta not desired or wished; unpleasing akaṇṭaka free from thorns; free from obstacles; free from rebels or bandits akantehi unpleasantly; in an undesired way akantena unpleasantly; in an undesired way akantika unpleasant akantiya unpleasant ākappa dress, appearance, guise; outward sign; deportment; (good) behavior akappakata (what is) not made allowable; not marked ākappasampanna of good deportment or appearance; decorous akappayi null akappayiṁsu null akappayuṁ null akappiya not lawful or acceptable (for bhikkhus or bhikkhunīs); unsuitable, improper akāpurisasevita practiced or cultivated by superior men; not practiced or cultivated by worthless men ākāra form, appearance; external characteristic, sign, gesture; expression; deceptive appearance, pretense akāraka who is not an agent; who is not the perpetrator; innocent akarāma null akaramha null akaraṇa the not doing, not making; abstention akāraṇa absence of a cause or (a valid) reason; not a cause; not the case akaraṇīya not to be done or made; not to be dealt with; what is not to be done ākārava having a form; having a cause; grounded ākāravat having a form; having a cause; grounded akārayi null akārayiṁ null akāresi null akarī null akarimha null akaritvā null akāriya not to be done akaronta null akaruṁ null ākāsa the ether; air, sky; space; open space ākāsagata in the air; belonging to the sky or space ākāsakasiṇa concentration on space, meditation based on space; the meditation object space ākāsānañcāyatana the sphere or stage of the infinity of space, i.e. the first of the arūpa states of existence; and ākāsaṅgata in the air; belonging to the sky or space ākāsaṭṭha living in the sky; being in the sky; being in the air akasāva without defect akāsi null akāsika not from Kāsi; inferior akāsiṁ null akasiralābhin obtaining with ease; abundantly obtaining akata not made, not done; not manufactured, not treated, natural; not fashioned; what has not been done; what is not made (nibbāna) akaṭa not made; not artificial, natural akatabhīruttāṇa null akatahattha null akataludda null akatamallaka an unworked scraper akataññu ungrateful akaṭānudhamma not dealt with according to the rule, not restored akatavedi null akatavedin null akaṭavidha whose form or arrangement is not made, is not ordered akaṭayūsa untreated soup, bean water without added oil akathaṁkathi free from doubt akathaṁkathin free from doubt akattha null akaṭṭhapāka ripening in uncultivated ground; growing wild akatupāsana null akavāṭa without a door akavāṭābaddha null akavātaka without a door akāyabandhana not wearing a belt akāyūpaga null akeṭubhi not fraudulent, honest akeṭubhin not fraudulent, honest akevala not pure; not whole, not entire akevali not accomplished; imperfect akevalin not accomplished; imperfect akhādana not eating; not chewing akhalita free from stumbling, from error akhaṇḍa with no gaps, whole, entire, complete akhārika not pungent akhettaññu not knowledgeable (about, genitive); not familiar with; inexperienced; unskillful; (according to commentary also: knowing who is not a suitable recipient) akhila free from barrenness; free from rigidity or hostility akhilajāta null ākhīṇa scattered, unrestrained; rough; impure akhīṇāsava in whom the āsavas have not perished, who is not an arhat ākhīṇavyappatha of rough speech (ākhīṇa) akicca (what is) not to be done akiccakāri doing what ought not to be done; acting wrongly akiccakārin doing what ought not to be done; acting wrongly akiccha lack of difficulty; ease akicchalābhi obtaining easily akicchalābhin obtaining easily akicchena with ease, without trouble akilanta null akilāsu untiring, unwearied; making every effort akiñcana who or which has nothing; without possessions, poor; without responsibilities; (according to commentaries) without impediments, without defilements ākiñcanasambhava the origin of the state of nothingness ākiñcañña the state of having nothing; complete absence of possessions ākiñcaññāyatana the sphere or stage of (the awareness of) nothingness, i.e. the third of the arūpa states of existence; and ākiṇṇa poured (into), heaped up (in); overspread, filled, crowded; surrounded, being in a crowd; disordered, unrestrained, impure ākiṇṇakammanta rough in action; acting impurely ākiṇṇaloma matted, thick hair ākiṇṇaludda rough and fierce; very fierce ākiṇṇamanussa full of people; crowded with people ākiṇṇavihāra living in crowds ākiranta null ākirati sprinkles, scatters over; pours (into, locative), heaps up (in); dispenses ākiritvā null akiriyā (feminine) non-activity; non-performance; abstention (from); failure to act akiriyavāda professing the doctrine that activity is not morally significant or effective; advocating abstention akiriyavādi professing the doctrine that activity is not morally significant or effective; advocating abstention akiriyavādin professing the doctrine that activity is not morally significant or effective; advocating abstention akissava (according to commentaries) without wisdom akittayi null akitti ill fame; reproach akittisañjanana producing ill fame akittisañjananī producing ill fame akka the name of a plant, Calotropis gigantea; swallow wort plant? akkamati steps on or treads upon; presses upon akkamiṁsu null akkamitabba will tread on akkamitvā null akkanāla the stalk of the akka plant akkanta (passive) stepped on; trodden upon; pressed upon akkha a die; dice akkhadassa a judge; a magistrate akkhadhutta a gamble; one addicted to dicing akkhāhata fixed on an axle akkhama impatient; not able to put up with; not amenable akkhambiya not to be made stiff; not be obstructed or hindered akkhaṇa the wrong time, the wrong moment; especially an inopportune moment to be born as a man, birth in unfavorable circumstances (when one cannot take advantage of a Buddha being in the world) akkhāna telling, announcing, teaching; a tale, a recitation, a legend akkhaṇavedhi (probably) piercing the target akkhaṇavedhin (probably) piercing the target akkhaṇḍa with no gaps, whole, entire, complete akkhaṇdakāri making whole; complete akkhaṇdakārin making whole; complete akkhantī impatience, intolerance; irascibility; unwillingness to forgive akkhara (m.f.n.) a sound; a syllable akkharappabheda phonology and etymology akkharikā (from akkhara) a letter-game akkhāsi null akkhata unhurt, uninjured; unimpaired, whole, perfect akkhāta one who tells; one who names; a preacher, a teacher akkhātā told, declared, taught; called, named akkhātar one who tells; one who names; a preacher, a teacher akkhāti announces; tells; declares; tells about; teaches akkhāya null akkhāyati announces; tells; declares; tells about; teaches akkhayita null akkhāyita not eaten akkheyya to be named; to be told, to be expressed; what can be expressed or described, a nameable object akkhi the eye akkhigūthaka an excretion from the eye akkhikahāraka one who removes eyes akkhikūpa the eye-socket akkhīṇāsava in whom the āsavas have not perished, who is not an arhat akkhissaṁ null akkhitārakā pupil of the eye; the eye akkhitta not reviled; not criticized akkhittacitta null akkhudda not small or mean; considerable, important akkhuddāvakāsa being a considerable occasion (for …) (?)); of no mean appearance (?) akkocchi null akkodha (masculine) freedom from anger; forbearance akkodhana free from anger; not easily angered. forbearing akkodhupāyāsi null akkodhupāyāsin null akkosa shouting at; abuse; reviling akkosaka (one) who abuses, scolds, reviles akkosakaparibhāsika (one) who abuses and insults akkosanta null akkosavatthu basis, ground for abuse akkoseti scolds, abuses, curses, reviles akkositabba null akkosiyamāna null akkudhasanta unprovoked and calm, mild and un-angered akkulo an exclamation (designed to terrify) akkuṭṭha reviled; scolded, railed at akkuṭṭhasanta being reviled; or calm when reviled akkuṭṭhavandita reviling and respect akopa without agitation or anger akopiyamāna null ākoṭāpeti null ākoṭayati beats, strikes; knocks (at); pounds; hammers (in) ākoṭesi null ākoṭesuṁ null ākoṭetabba null ākoṭeti beats, strikes; knocks (at); pounds; hammers (in) ākoṭetvā null ākoṭita beaten; knocked (at); pounded; hammered (in) ākoṭitapaccākoṭita beaten and pounded; pounded this way and that akotūhalamaṅgalika null akovida not experienced; not knowledgeable about akriyā (feminine) non-activity; non-performance; abstention (from); failure to act akubba null akubbamāna null akubbat null akuha free from deceit; not fraudulent; genuine akuhaka not deceitful, not fraudulent; genuine akūjana not creaking, not making a noise akujjana not creaking, not making a noise akukkucca free from anxiety; free from feelings of guilt akukkuccaka not causing anxiety (?) akukkuccakajāta not causing anxiety akukkukajāta without shoots? akukkukata (what is) not temporary; give an unlimited time akula a non-family, a family that is destroyed or disgraced akulaputta not of good family akuppa (adjective) not able to be disturbed; stable; immovable; not open to challenge or valid objection akuppadhamma not not vulnerable to disturbance; whose essential nature is stability or changeability akuppamāna is not steadfast; is not unshakable akusala (adjective) not good, not right; evil, harmful, not conducing to well-being; evil, acting wrongly akusalā dhammā wrong practices or actions; evil conduct; harmful factors akusalabhāgiya associated to what is wrong, with evil or harm akusalapakkhika belonging to the group of bad qualities akusīta not slothful; conscientious akūta not deceitful, not false; not wild, not vicious akutobhaya having nothing to fear from anywhere, from any quarter. secure; where there is nothing to fear from any quarter ala the claw of a crab aḷa the claw of a crab alābhaka the not getting (something); the not receiving anything alābu the fruit of the bottle-gourd; a vessel made from the bottle-gourd alābulomasa hairy like a gourd alacchinna with thumbs and/or big toes mutilated alagadda (masculine) a water-snake; (adjective) like (the getting hold of) a water-snake: ālaggetvā fastening, hanging (on, locative) ālaggetvāna fastening, hanging (on, locative) āḷahana a place of cremation; funeral pyre āḷāhana a place of cremation; funeral pyre ālakamanda open, unenclosed; or crowded (like Āḷakamandā); (also āḷakamanda) āḷakamanda open, unenclosed; or crowded (like Āḷakamandā); (also ālakamanda) alaṁ enough, sufficient; adequate, equal to; competent, able; suitable, fit for (+ genitive/dative personae; + dative rei or inf; or as predicate to subject in nominative) alamariya suitable for or worth of the noble ones; truly noble alamatta competent alamattha able; competent alamatthadasatara more competent to see what is beneficial; wiser alamatthatara more competent alamatthavicintaka able to discern the goal or what is beneficial ālambana something to hold on to or lean on, support; a staff; a support on a carriage ālambaṇa something to hold on to or lean on, support; a staff; a support on a carriage ālambanabāhā a rail, a banister ālambara a drum āḷambara a drum ālambitvā held on to; clung to alampañña capable of reason, sensible alampateyyā suitable, fit for marriage alaṁsājīva fit for the communal life alaṁsākaccha fit to speak in a discussion alaṁsamakkhāta a competent teacher alaṁsamakkhātar a competent teacher alaṁvacanīya (formally) repudiated; separated, estranged alaṅkammanīya suitable, adequate for the action alaṅkāra ornament, decoration; the act of decorating; improvement alaṅkaroti ornaments; adorns oneself; puts on; (negative) finds no satisfaction in alaṅkata adorned, decorated; wearing ornaments alaṅkatapaṭiyatta adorned and decorated; fully adorned ālapana address, addressing, speaking to; (the sense of) the vocative case ālapanta null ālapati addresses, speaks to; names, refers to ālapi null ālapiṁsu null ālapita (adjective) addressed; named; referred to; (neuter) addressing alāpu (the fruit of) the bottle-gourd ālārika a cook ālāriya a cook alasa lazy, inactive; indolent, idle alasajātīka lazy by nature; disposed to laziness alasaka flatulence ālasiya idleness; sloth; waste of energy ālassa idleness; sloth; waste of energy ālasya idleness; sloth; waste of energy alāta a firebrand; fire alattakakata reddened (with lac) ālaya settling-place, abode; nest, lair; house, hall, shelter; repository ālayati settles down on; is attached to; clings, has longings ālayesi seeking shelter; seeing the nest ālayesin seeking shelter; seeing the nest ālepa anointing; ointment āḷhaka a fluid and dry measure āḷhakathālikā a cooking pot holding an āḷhaka of rice āli an embankment, a dike āḷi an embankment, a dike ālibaddha constructed with an embankment, enclosed by an embankment alika untrue; false; a lie, a falsehood ālimpa null ālimpanta null ālimpāpeti causes to anoint ālimpat null ālimpati besmears, anoints; applies ālimpesuṁ null ālimpetabba null ālimpeti kindles; sets fire to ālimpetvā null ālimpita kindled; set on fire ālimpitabba null ālinda a terrace or verandah (especially in front of the door of a house or dwelling); a surrounding platform or ledge āḷinda a terrace or verandah (especially in front of the door of a house or dwelling); a surrounding platform or ledge āliṅgati embraces, encircles āliṅgeti embraces, encircles āliṅgetvā null āliṅgitvā null ālitta smeared, anointed alla wet, moist; fresh allika the dye made from the leaves of the alli plant allīna sticking to, attached to; come close to; resorting to alliyati comes close to; settles down on; leans against; sticks to, is attached (to, accusative or locative) allīyati comes close to; settles down on; leans against; sticks to, is attached (to, accusative or locative) āloka light, daylight; luster, brightness ālokada giving light ālokakaraṇa light-giving, illuminating ālokapharaṇa pervasion or pervading with light or insight ālokasandhi a window; an opening to let the light in; shutters ālokaya null ālokayat null ālokayati looks at; looks forward āloketabba null āloketi looks at; looks forward ālokita looking at, looking forwards ālokitabba null āloḷayati stirs up, disturbs; mixes, confuses, confounds āloḷeti stirs up, disturbs; mixes, confuses, confounds āloḷetvā null ālopa a portion, a bit; a mouthful ālopati robs; plunders ālumpati tears out; pulls out āluppakārakaṁ making it into lumps; tearing of bits āma (also āmo) (particle of assent or approval or recollection, usually followed by vocative and/or affirming clause): yes, indeed, certainly amacca one who belongs to the same household; a companion, especially a companion of a king, a chief minister, āmagandha the smell of raw flesh, carrion; stench, foulness; (fig.) moral foulness, corruption āmakachinna cut while unripe āmakamatta unbaked, still unbaked; or an unbaked pot or vessel āmalaka the fruit of the āmalaka plant, the Indian gooseberry (phyllanthus emblica) āmalakapatta a leaf of the āmalaka plant āmalakī the Indian gooseberry plant (phyllanthus emblica) āmalavaṇṭaka the name or description of a type of chair āmalavaṇṭika the name or description of a type of chair āmalavaṭṭika the name or description of a type of chair amama without possessiveness, without egotism; unselfish āmaṇḍa the fruit of the āmaṇḍa plant āmaṇḍalikā a (rough) circle; a group āmaṇḍaliyā a (rough) circle; a group amaṇdanā lack of ornament āmantana (also āmantana) addressing; speaking to; invitation; inviting āmantaṇa (also āmantana) addressing; speaking to; invitation; inviting āmantāpetvā making summon; making speak to, address; making take leave of āmantayati summons; addresses, speaks to; informs, consults; takes leave of āmantayi null āmantesi null āmantesuṁ null āmanteti summons; addresses, speaks to; informs, consults; takes leave of āmantetvā null āmantita summoned; invited; addressed amanussika caused by a non-human, by a demon amānussika non-human amanussikābādha an affliction caused by a demon amara undying; not subject to death amarantapa (see also amaratapa) (extreme) penance undertaken to obtain immortality amaratapa (see also amarantapa) (extreme) penance undertaken to obtain immortality amarāvikkhepa (constant) equivocation, prevarication; shuffling to and fro amarāvikkhepika (one) who equivocates; who gives evasive answers; who cannot be pinned down āmasabrahmacāri a fellow religious student belonging to the same house or community āmasabrahmacārin a fellow religious student belonging to the same house or community āmasana touching; touch; considering āmasati touches, lays hold on; touches on, refers to; considers āmasi null āmasitvā null āmata almost dead, near to death amātāputtika which part mother and son āmaṭṭha touched; touched upon; considered; touching āmattikāpaṇa a pot-seller’s stall, a shop or stall for pots āmavasesa remnants of undigested food āmavasesaka remnants of undigested food amba sour ambacoraka a mango thief ambakā a woman; a mere woman ambakamaddarī a kind of bird ambakapañña “with a (mere) woman’s wisdom”; silly ambapālaka a guardian of mango trees ambapesikā mango rind; mango peel; a small piece of mango ambho exclamatory particle used, often with following voca, to attract attention or to address vigorously; sometimes expressing reproach or anger or objection: ho ! hey ! look here ! I say! ambila sour, acid (one of the six tastes); pickled ambilagga with sourness predominant ambu water ambuja a fish amha a stone amhā the lowing of a cow; a cow amhamaya made of stone amhan a stone āmisa flesh; food; bait, lure, reward āmisakhāra lye, an alkaline fluid (allowed as a treatment for constipation) āmisakiñcikkha some material gain āmisantara wishing for material gain āmisapaṭisanthāra hospitable giving of material goods āmisasanthāra the laying out, distribution, of material goods ammā a mother; singular vocative (a term of familiar address used to females, especially to a mother) āmo (also āma) (particle of assent or approval or recollection, usually followed by vocative and/or affirming clause): yes, indeed, certainly āmodamāna glad; joyful; rejoicing āmodayati gladdens, cheers āmodeti gladdens, cheers aṁsa shoulder aṁsā a particular disease, hemorrhoids, piles aṁsabaddha a shoulder strap aṁsabandhaka a shoulder strap aṁsakūṭa “shoulder prominence”; the shoulder amuka such and such a person or thing amutra there; in such and such a place; in that āmuttamālābharaṇa wearing garlands and ornaments āmuttamaṇikuṇḍala with jeweled earrings put on, wearing jeweled earrings an negative prefix before vowels ana a double negative prefix āṇā order, command; authority anabbhakkhātukama not wishing to slander anabbhita not rehabilitated anabhāva nonexistence, annihilation anabhāvakata eradicated; annihilated anabhāvaṅgata eradicated; annihilated anabhāvaṅkata eradicated; annihilated anabhibhūta not overcame; not vanquished anabhibhuyya not having overcome; not having surpassed; not victorious anabhihiṁsamāna not hurting; not disturbing anabhijānā null anabhijānāt null anabhijjhā lack of covetousness anabhijjhālu not greedy or covetous anabhijjhāta one who does not covet anabhijjhātar one who does not covet anabhijjhita not coveted anabhinanda null anabhinandamāna null anabhinandana displeasure; disgust anabhinandat null anabhinandita not welcomed; undesirable anabhinata bent towards; inclined towards anabhiṇata bent towards; inclined towards anabhineyya not having led near; not having brought to; not summoned anabhinibbatti the not becoming; not coming into existence anabhinivesa non-adherence (to, locative) anabhiññāta not known; not well known anabhiññāya null anabhiraddha dissatisfied; sulky anabhiraddhi discontent; anger; lack of conciliation anabhiramanta null anabhirata taking no delight (in), discontented, disaffected anabhirati discontent (+ locative); disaffection (especially with the celibate or solitary life) anabhisaddahati null anabhisamaya lack of penetration; wrong understanding anabhisambhava null anabhisambhavanīya null anabhisambhavat null anabhisambhuṇāti not mastering; not enduring anabhisambuddha not having attained complete understanding; not (yet) a Buddha anabhisamecca null anabhisameta not understood anabhisañcetayanta not thinking it out, not planning anabhisaṅkhacca null anabhisaṅkharonta null anabhisitta not inaugurated (as king or queen) anabhissara without a companion; without a helper anabhivada null anabhivadat null anabhivitaritvā null anābhoga absence of enjoyment anācāra (masculine) misconduct, especially sexual misconduct anācariyaka not having a teacher; not dependent on an instructor anaccekacīvara what is not an accekacīvara anacchariya not marvelous, not surprising; natural; not unusual, unexceptional; a natural thing or occurrence anacchariyaṁ naturally; not surprisingly anāciṇṇa not done, not practiced; not the custom anādā not taking; not receiving anādāna not grasping; free from attachment anādara disrespectful; regardless, unconcerned; indifferent anādari disrespect, disregard anādariya disrespect, disregard; carelessness anādāya null anādhānagāhin null anādhāra without support; without a stand or holder anadhibhū not a conqueror; one who does not overcome anadhibhūta not overpowered anadhigama lack of attainment anadhigata not attained, what has not been attained anadhika not exceeding; not more; not in excess anadhimucchita not infatuated; not clinging to anadhiṭṭhāna not a support; not determining; not fixing one’s mind on. lack of resolve; not taking formal possession anadhiṭṭhāya null anadhiṭṭhita (adjective) not determined or fixed; not taken possession of; not resolved on, not undertaken anadhivāsaya null anadhivāsayat null anadhivāsenta null anādīnavadassāvi null anādīnavadassāvin null anādinna not used; with no mark used or added anādiyana null anādiyanta null anādiyitvā not taking; not receiving anāgamana not coming; non-return anāgamanadiṭṭhika without belief in future consequences anāgamanīya will not come anāgāmi one who does not return (to this world; one who has reached the third stage, and will be reborn only in a Brahma world, and attain arahatship there) anāgāmin one who does not return (to this world; one who has reached the third stage, and will be reborn only in a Brahma world, and attain arahatship there) anāgāmitā the state or condition of an anāgāmī anāgāmphala the fruit the fulfillment of the state of an anāgāmī anāganta a non-returned, one who does not return anāgantar a non-returned, one who does not return anagārā (adjective and masculine) without a house, homeless; (one) who has left a household life; a homeless ascetic anāgāriya the homeless state; homelessness; the life of a wandering ascetic anāgata (adjective) not come, not yet arrived; future; not learnt, not attained; not attested anāgata-m-addhāne in the future anāgatam addhānaṁ in the future anāgataṁsa the future anāgatattha who was not attained the goal anagga without a limit; without a point anaggahīta not kept back anaggahītacitta with a generous heart anaggava inferior anaggavat inferior anāghāta free from ill-will; not taking offense anāgu blameless anāhāra (masculine) not food; not sustenance anāhaṭa null anājānīya of inferior birth; ignoble anajjhagaṁ null anajjhāpanna who has not committed, not become guilty of (an offense) anajjhāpatti Non-transgression, the not committing of (an offense) anajjhārūha not dominating anajjhāyaka one who does not study (the Vedas) anajjhopanna not addicted to anajjhosāna lack of grasping anajjhosāya null anajjhosita not grasping anākappasampanna null anākiṇṇa not crowded anakkhāna not telling; no need for telling anakkhāta not declared, not told; not described anakkosakaparibhāsika (one) who does not abuse or insult anākula not confused; not crowded; not agitated; calm analaṁ not enough; not sufficient anālamba without support, without anything to hold on to analaṅkaritvā thinking insufficient; not finding satisfaction in analaṅkata not adorned; unsatisfied anālāpa not speaking, not addressing anālapanatā the ceasing to speak, the silencing (?) anālapanta null analasa diligent; active, energetic anālassa energy anālasya energy anālaya (adjective) free from clinging or attachment; free from longing; empty of desire anāḷhika not rich; poor; destitute anāḷhiya not rich; poor; destitute anālindaka without a veranda anāloka without vision or insight; without light, without a light anāmanta without asking for permission; without consulting anāmantā without asking for permission; without consulting anāmantacara going for alms without asking permission anāmantetvā null anamatagga without beginning (or end, generally of saṁsāra) anāmaya free from disease anaṇa free of debt; independent ānanda joy, pleasure, bliss ānandajanana producing joy ānandajāta full of joy anandha not blind; seeing anandhakaraṇa giving sight; awakening ānandi joyful; happy ānandin joyful; happy anaṅgaṇa free from blemish; spotless anañña not other, the same, identical anaññaneyya not to be led by someone else; not needing guidance from anyone else anāññāta not understood, not known anaññatha not being otherwise, as it really is; true anaññathā not otherwise, accurately, as it really is anaññathābhāvi not subject to change anaññathābhāvin not subject to change ananta endless; infinite; boundless anantadassi of unlimited sight, seeing everything anantadassin of unlimited sight, seeing everything anantagāhikā null anantaka endless anantapañña of infinite understanding, of endless wisdom anantara esoteric, not kept to oneself; not restricted anantarā immediately after; next, then; next to (genitive or ablative) anantaradhāna non-disappearance; non-decline anantarahita uncovered, bare; not having disappeared anantaraṁ immediately after anantarāyika not subject to hindrance or danger; not forming an impediment anantarāyikinī not hindered; not prevented anantarika with no space intervening; immediately preceding or following ānantarika (adjective) immediately preceding or following, next; nearest ānantarikakamma an action bringing retribution in the immediately following existence ānantariya (adjective) immediately preceding or following, next; nearest anantava null anantavat null anantevāsika without resident pupils, i.e. without internal impurities ananubhodha lack of understanding ananubhūta not experienced; not attained ananucchavika unsuitable; unbecoming ananucchaviya unsuitable; unbecoming ananugatantara with independent mind ananugiddha free from greed anānugiddha free from greed anānujana null anānujanat null anānuloma unsuitable ananulomika improper; unsuitable; not in accordance (with) ananulomiya improper; unsuitable; not in accordance (with) ananumodaka who does not give thanks; who does not give approval ananuññāta not allowed, not given permission anānupassi not looking upon, not considering anānupassin not looking upon, not considering ananuppatta null anānupuṭṭha not question, not asked ananuruddha not pleased with; not complying with anānuruddha not pleased with; not complying with ananusaya lack of inherence, lack of propensity ananusiṭṭha null ananussarita not recalled; not reflecting, not recollecting ananussuta not heard; not handed down by tradition ananutappa null ananuvāda free from criticism; blameless ananuvajja not to be censured anānuvajja not to be censured ananuvejja not to be found ananuvicca without testing, without examining anānuyāyin not following, remaining firm; not subject (to) ananuyoga lack of application; not devoting oneself (to) ananuyutta not applying oneself to, not practicing; not intent upon ananvāhataceta whose mind is not injured or frustrated ananvāhatacetas whose mind is not injured or frustrated ananvaya without consequences; not followed up ānaṇya release or freedom from debt or obligation anapadāna without discrimination; without discernment anapadesa without valid grounds, without authority anapagata not gone away (from) āṇāpaka one who gives an order; one who passes on an order anapaloketvā null anapalokita null ānapāna breathing in and out ānapānasati intentness of mind on one’s breathing in and out ānapānassati intentness of mind on one’s breathing in and out anāpannasattā pregnant; a pregnant woman anāpara without another, matchless anapasādetvā null anāpāthagata null anāpatti no offense, not a transgression anāpattibahula null anāpattika who has committed no offense anapaviddha not thrown away; not rejected anapāya not going away, without aversion ānāpayati (see also ānāpeti) causes to be brought; has fetc.hed āṇāpayati (also āṇāpeti) commands, gives an order (to); orders anapāyi not going away anapāyin not going away anapekha free from desire; paying no regard, indifferent; disinterested anapekhava null anapekhavat null anapekkha free from desire; paying no regard, indifferent; disinterested anapekkhava null anapekkhavat null anapekkhi free from longing (for); indifferent anapekkhin free from longing (for); indifferent ānāpesi null āṇāpesi null āṇāpesuṁ null anapeta not departed from, not deviating from ānāpeti (see also ānāpayati) (sometimes confused with, and written as, āṇāpeti), causes to be brought; has fetc.hed āṇāpeti (also āṇāpayati) commands, gives an order (to); orders āṇāpetvā null āṇāpita instructed; ordered; enjoined anappaka not a little, considerable, great; not a small amount, much. (plural) many anappameyya immeasurable; boundless anāpuccha null anāpucchā null anāpucchat null anāpucchita null anārādhaka not winning approval, not pleasing; unsuccessful anārādhanīya failure, lack of approval anaraha (who is) not an arahat anarahat (who is) not an arahat anārakkha not watchful, not guarding anārambha absence of undertaking; non-exertion anārammaṇa without a basis; without an object anariya (adjective) belonging to the Ariya people anariyavohāra the way of speaking of the ignoble ones; an ignoble mode of speech anārocana a failure to announce; the omission of announcement anāropetvā null anāropita null anāsa lack of expectation; lack of desire anāsaka not eating; fasting anāsakā fasting (as an ascetic practice) anasana not eating, fasting; hunger anāsana an unsuitable seat, an unsuitable place for sitting anāsanna not having approached; not near anāsannavara best when not near anāsasāna null anāsava free from the āsavas anāsevita null anasita what is not eaten anassāsaka not getting one’s breath; unable to breathe anassāsika discouraging, comfortless; unreliable anassava disobedient; not biddable anassāvi “not rutting”; without desire anassāvin “not rutting”; without desire anātāpi without energy, without application anātāpin without energy, without application anaticāri faithful anaticārin faithful anaticariyā non-transgression; faithfulness anatikkamana not passing; not going beyond; not transgressing anatikkamanīya not to be passed; not to be transgressed (against) anatikkamitvā null anatimāna freedom from conceit anatimāni not conceited; free from pride (see anatimāni(n)) anatimānin not conceited; free from pride (see anatimāni(n)) anatimaññamāna null anatiritta none left over; none remaining anatisāra (adjective) not transgressing anatīta not having past or overcome; subject to anatta not the self, not a soul āṇatta instructed; ordered; enjoined anattadhīna dependent; not independent anattamana dissatisfied, displeased, disgruntled; troubled, worried anattan not the self, not a soul anattaneyya not belonging to oneself anattanupassi looking upon as not the self, not considering there is a self anattanupassin looking upon as not the self, not considering there is a self anattha not the goal; disadvantage; harm; what is unprofitable, useless anatthadassi not seeing the goal or what is beneficial anatthadassin not seeing the goal or what is beneficial anatthajanana producing harm anatthaka of no meaning or use; hurtful anatthakāma not wishing the beneficial, profit of; not wishing (one) well anatthasaṁhita not connected with the goal; not useful, not profitable; not having meaning anatthata not covered; (of the kaṭhina) not properly covered; (of the kaṭhina robe-making and ritual) not properly carried out, not properly performed anatthavādi not speaking about the goal or what is beneficial anatthavādin not speaking about the goal or what is beneficial anatthika not wanting, not caring for (+ instrumental); unconcerned āṇatti order, command; (the sense of) the imperative mood anattukkaṁsana non-self-praise anātura not sick; healthy; well anavajja irreproachable, faultless anavakāsa what is out of the question; an impossibility anavakkanta not entered; not trodden upon; not overcome anavamānanā absence of contempt; respect anavamata not despised; honored anavaññāta null anavaññattikāma wishing not to be despised, not to be disregarded anāvara irresistible; without obstruction anāvaraṇadassāvi seeing without obstruction; with unobstructed sight anāvaraṇadassāvin seeing without obstruction; with unobstructed sight anāvasa not a residence, an uninhabited place; a place not fit for staying in anavasesa without any remainder; all; complete; (of an offense) total, irremediable anavasesadohi milking dry anavasesadohin milking dry anavasesaṁ completely anavassava the not flowing, no flow; stoppage anavassuta not leaking; not rotten; free from lust and defilement anāvaṭa not obstructed; not shut off anavattha unstable; not lasting anavatthacārikā wandering in an unsettled way (not staying long anywhere) anavaṭṭhita unsteady; not lasting anāvatti not returning; not coming back anāvaṭṭi not turning to; not seduced, unaffected anāvattidhamma not subject to return (to this world); not liable to turn back or change anāvaṭṭin not turning to; not seduced, unaffected anavaya expert, experienced (in); without deficiency anāvayha not to be take in marriage (as a wife) anāvikatvā null anāvila clear; pure; undisturbed anavosita not settled; not determined; not finished anavositatta whose mind has no firm convictions anāvuta not obstructed; not shut off anaya bad course; misfortune, calamity; loss anāyāsa free from trouble; without distress anāyatanaso in the wrong sphere or place; unsuitably ānayati leads towards or near; brings, fetc.hes; brings home, brings home (as a wife); brings back; supplies, understands (a meaning or word) ānayissami null anāyūha without thrusting, without struggling anāyūhat null anāyussa not giving long life añchati stretc.hes; pulls, drags, turns (on a lathe) aṇḍa an egg aṇḍabhāri carrying his testicles aṇḍabhārin carrying his testicles aṇḍabhūta being an egg or in an egg; like an egg aṇḍahāraka one who takes or extirpates the testicles, a gelder; (or one who takes eggs?) aṇḍaja born from an egg aṇḍaka harsh, rough, insolent aṇḍakosa an egg shell (or egg) aṇḍasambhava produced from an egg; a bird andha blind, blinded; mentally blind, foolish, unenlightened andhabāla mentally blind, stupid, foolish andhabhūta mentally blind; blinded andhaka a gadfly andhakāra (masculine, neuter) darkness; blackness andhakāraka dark; or darkness andhakaraṇa blinding; confusing andhakāratimisā pitch darkness: andhandhaṁ dimly andhaveṇi a line or series of blind men andhikata made blind, blinded andhīkata made blind, blinded andu a fetter; a shackle (of wood?) andū a fetter; a shackle (of wood?) andubhandana confining with an andu, shackling aneja (adjective) unmoved, imperturbable; without emotion ānejja immovability; imperturbability ānejjakārana the feat of immovability (or a trained elephant) ānejjapatta who or which has reached immovability or imperturbability ānejjappatta who or which has reached immovability or imperturbability aneka not one, i.e. many, various; of various kinds; countless, numberless anekabhāga multiplied; manifold anekaṁsika null anekaṁsikata not decided; not determined; not absolute anekapariyāyena in many ways; in a manifold way; with several parallel expressions anekarūpa (adjective) various, of various kinds, of many forms anekasahassa consisting of many thousands anekasārīrika relating to more than one body, connected with many bodies anekasata consisting of many hundreds anekavassagaṇika in existence for many years anekavidha of several kinds; manifold; various anekavihita variously ordered; of several kinds, various anelagala (faultless (of speech, of voice) aneḷagala (faultless (of speech, of voice) aneḷagaḷa (faultless (of speech, of voice) anelaka (of honey) pure aneḷaka (of honey) pure anelamūga not foolish, wise aneḷamūga not foolish, wise aneñja (neuter) immovability; imperturbability āneñja (neuter) immovability; imperturbability āneñjabhisaṅkhāra an accumulation of motive force, impetus, for arūpa states āneñjakāraṇa the feat of immovability (or a trained elephant) āneñjapatta who or which has reached immovability or imperturbability āneñjappatta who or which has reached immovability or imperturbability anesana an improper way of seeking; an improper means of obtaining anesanā an improper way of seeking; an improper means of obtaining ānesi null ānessami null ānessati null ānesuṁ null āneti leads towards or near; brings, fetc.hes; brings home, brings home (as a wife); brings back; supplies, understands (a meaning or word) ānetuṁ null ānetvā null aṅga a part of the body; a limb, member; an integral part of anything; a constituent part of a whole, a subordinate division; a limb or aspect of something as a characteristic sign, an attribute, a quality; as a determining characteristic or factor, a cause; iminā p’ aṅgena, with that characteristic; in that way; for that reason aṅga-m-aṅgāni limb by limb; all the limbs aṅgajāta the male or female genitals aṅgaṇa a place to walk in; open space, a court; a clearing aṅgapaccaṅga one limb or another; one limb after another; all the limbs or parts aṅgāra charcoal; heated charcoal; embers aṅgarāga unguents or cosmetics for the body aṅgārakāsu a charcoal pit (with burning coal) aṅgārakaṭāha a pot or pan for burning charcoal; a fire-pan; a brazier aṅgāri covered in crimson aṅgārin covered in crimson aṅgavata rheumatism aṅgavijjā the art of prognosticating from parts of, or marks on, the body aṅgi having limbs or parts; having a body; who has limbs aṅgin having limbs or parts; having a body; who has limbs aṅgula a finger aṅgulī a finger (often in plural including the thumb); (occasionally) a toe aṅgulīchinna whose finger has been cut off aṅgulimuddikā a signet ring aṅgulīpada a finger-mark aṅgulīpatodaka poking with the finger; tickling aṅguṭṭha the thumb; the big toe aṅguṭṭhapada a thumb-mark añhamāna null āṇi the pin of a wheel-axle; a linchpin; a peg; a bolt āṇī the pin of a wheel-axle; a linchpin; a peg; a bolt anibbisa not settling, not resting; or not paying; without expiation anibbisaṁ not settling, not resting; or not paying; without expiation anibbisat not settling, not resting; or not paying; without expiation aniccha having no wish, without desire anicchā freedom from desire anicchanta unwilling āṇicoḷaka a plug of cloth; a menstruation cloth āṇidvāra a small gate or a bolted gate anīgha free from affliction, from misery; free from trouble anīka an army; troops aṇīka an army; troops anīkadassana a troop inspection, a review of soldiers anīkagga the front, van of an army anīkaṭṭha a soldier, especially a royal guard or bodyguard anikīḷitāvi not having finished playing; taking enjoyment anikīḷitāvin not having finished playing; taking enjoyment anikkasāva not free from defect or impurity; impure anila air; wind aniḷaka (of honey) pure anīḷaka (of honey) pure aniñjita (adjective) not perturbed anirāmagandha not free from corruption, tainted ānisada the buttocks, the bottom ānisaṁsa profit, advantage; benefit, blessing (in, locative) āṇisaṅghāṭa a framework of pegs anissā lack of envy, freedom from jealousy anissāmanaka null anissara not being an owner or master; not empowered, powerless anissuka not jealous, not envious anissuki not jealous; free from envy anissukin not jealous; free from envy ānīta led near; brought; fetc.hed, brought home anīti freedom from calamity; health, safety anītiha not received through tradition; not based on hearsay anītika free from calamity or distress aniṭṭha not wished for; unpleasant; undesirable anitthi not a woman anivatti not turning back; not to be turned back anivattin not turning back; not to be turned back ānīyamāna null ānīyati null āniyyati null añjalī the cupped hands; especially as raised to the head (as a gesture of respect or supplication) añjalika with cupped hands raised añjalikamma a respectful salutation with cupped hands añjalikaraṇīya worthy of respectful salutations añjana smearing, anointing (?) añjanakkhika with eyes painted with collyrium añjanī a box for ointments, a collyrium pot añjanisalākā a stick for applying ointment añjanithavikā a bag for the collyrium pot añjanūpapiṁsana perfume to mix with ointment añjasa (adjective) straight; direct (of a road); upright (in morals) añjasayana the straight course añjati smears, anoints; paints; makes clear aṅka the lap aṅkusa a hook for controlling and driving an elephant, a goad aṅkusagayha (from aṅkusaggaha) the art of elephant driving aṅkusaggaha “one who holds the hook”, an elephant driver anna food (especially boiled rice) añña other; different; other than (+ ablative); another, a further, one more; somebody, something else; anything else; plural (the) others, the rest aññā knowledge, philosophic insight; perfect knowledge i.e. arahantship añña-d-attha another object or aim añña-d-atthika having another object or purpose añña-m-añña one another; each other añña-m-aññakhādikā the eating of one another añña-m-aññaṁ towards one another; mutually, reciprocally annabhāra a food carrier; a grass-seller(?) annabhāranesādā grass sellers and fowlers aññacetāpana asking for something else; exchanging for something else (?) aññācitta thought for knowledge, the intention of gaining perfect knowledge annada giving food aññadā at another time, at other times aññadatthu only, exclusively, absolutely; merely; rather, on the contrary aññadatthudasa seeing absolutely the only seer (of Brahmā or Tathāgata) aññadatthuhara who merely, only takes aññadatthuṁ null aññādisa of another kind; different aññadiṭṭhika having different views aññakanthika acquiescing in different views aññāṁ vyākaroti proclaims one’s arahatship aññamokkha to be released by another aññāṇa knowledge aññāṇaka ignorance; lack of understanding aññañña each other aññapekha wishing for knowledge, wanting to know aññapekkha wishing for knowledge, wanting to know āññāsi null āññassati null aññāta one who knows, who understands; a knower āññāta known, understood āññātabba null aññātaka unknown; unfamiliar aññātakavesena in disguise; not in one owns form aññatama one out of many; one or other of āññātaññassāmītindriya the faculty of resolving to know something unknown aññātar one who knows, who understands; a knower aññatara one of two; one of several; a certain… (often used as indefinite article: ‘a’); somebody, some… aññataraññatara one or other; all kinds aññātāvi who has complete insight; (completely understood?) aññātāvin who has complete insight; (completely understood?) aññātāvindriya the faculty of (having) complete insight aññathā in a different manner; otherwise (than, ablative); in the wrong way, falsely, erroneously; not so aññathābhava becoming different; change, alteration aññathābhāvi of changeable nature, inevitably changing aññathābhāvin of changeable nature, inevitably changing aññathācariyaka following a different teaching aññathatta change, alteration; change of mind; doubt, anxiety āññāti understands; perceives aññatitthiya belonging to another sec; a non-Buddhist aññato from another, from somebody else; elsewhere; from elsewhere aññatra elsewhere, somewhere else; in another place aññatrācariyaka following a different teaching aññatrayoga following another discipline or religious practice aññattha somewhere else, anywhere else, elsewhere aññatthācariyaka following a different teaching āññātuṁ null aṇṇava the sea, the ocean; a stream aññāvada a statement of what is known (?) aññavadaka (masculine) one who speaks about something else, a prevaricator aññavadī professing another doctrine aññavadīn professing another doctrine aññavihita being occupied with something else aññavihitaka occupied with something else; (repeated) directed to one thing … directed to another … āññāya null āññeyya null aññindriya the faculty of knowing aññoññavivaresi seeking faults in one another aññoññavivaresin seeking faults in one another anodaka without water anodarikatta freedom from gluttony; moderation in eating anodhijina who has not overcome the limits, who has not gone beyond what is limited or limits; or not knowing as far as the furthest extent anodhikatvā not limiting, without limitation; without discrimination, without distinction anodhiṁ karitvā not limiting, without limitation; without discrimination, without distinction anodissa without reference (to a specific person); in general; universally anoggata null anohitasota null anojagghati laughs at; mocks anojava lacking strength or vitality; lacking nutriment; not juicy anojavat lacking strength or vitality; lacking nutriment; not juicy anoka (adjective) without a home; independent anokāsaṁ kārāpetvā without having consent anokāsaṁ kata how has not given the opportunity; who has not consented or given permission anokasāri null anokasārin null anomajja null anomajjanta null anomajjat null anomajjati rubs down along; strokes (one’s limbs) again and again anomanāma perfectly named; or named for one’s perfection or superior virtues anomananta not bowing; not stooping; not sinking anomanikkama of superior or excellent energy and exertion anoñāta not despised; respected anoññāta not despised; respected anopama incomparable, peerless; excellent, best anopārambha not open to criticism, not censurable anosārita null anosita not inhabited, not occupied anotiṇṇa who has not gone into, has not penetrated; not having entered; not appeared; not under consideration anottāpi shameless, not fearful (of doing wrong) anottāpin shameless, not fearful (of doing wrong) anottappa shamelessness; failure to avoid wrong-doing or blame anottappi shameless, not fearful (of doing wrong) anottappin shameless, not fearful (of doing wrong) anovādi not giving instructions anovādin not giving instructions anovadiyamāna null anovassa a place sheltered from the rain anovassaka (adjective) sheltered from the rain; not rained upon anovassika (adjective) sheltered from the rain; not rained upon anovaṭa null anta end, limit, conclusion; death, destruction; edge, boundary; extreme, opposing principle anta-m-anta the most remote anta’anta the most remote antābādha the illness of twisting of the gut: antaga having reached the end; thoroughly conversant with reaching perfection (in); extreme antagaṇṭhi twisting of the gut, a twisted gut antaggāhikā involving extreme standpoints antagū going to the end; having reached the end antajana the inner household; servants antaka “making an end”, a designation of the god of death, identified with Mārā antakara putting an end (to, genitive) antakiriyā putting an end to; destruction antaḷikkha intermediate space, the atmosphere, the air; the sky antaḷikkhacara traveling through the air antaḷikkhaga going through the air antaḷikkhecara traveling through the air antamaso eve; even so much as antananta finiteness or limitless antanantika believing in the finiteness or limitless (of the world) antara (adjective) interior; inner, inward antarā (adverb) inside; on the way, in the meantime; beforehand, before (reaching something) antarā-hosi was interrupted; was drowned antarabhogika a border chieftain (between two kingdoms) antaradhāna disappearance, vanishing, passing away antaradhāpayati causes to disappear; destroys antaradhāpeti causes to disappear; destroys antaradhāyamāna null antaradhāyati disappears; vanishes antaradhāyi null antaradhāyiṁsu null antaradhāyituṁ null antaradhāytha null antaragharaṁ between the houses, among the houses (i.e. in the village); within a house antaraghare within a house; (see antara) antarahita disappeared, vanished; covered; invisible antarākāja a load on a carrying pole suspended between two persons antarakappa a subdivision or intermediate cycle of a mahākappa antarākathā mutual talk, conversation (between) antaraṁ karoti concentrates on; keeps in mind antarāmaggato from on the road antarāmagge on the way antarāmuttaka released or vacant in the meantime antarāntara in the middle; as an interruption antarāpaṇa a market, bazaar antarāparinibbāyi one who realized nibbāna beforehand (before passing the midpoint of his term life in heaven) antarāparinibbāyin one who realized nibbāna beforehand (before passing the midpoint of his term life in heaven) antarāppati an offense committed in the meantime (i.e. before the expiration of a parivāsa or mānatta period) antarato from within, inwardly antaraṭṭhaka occurring between the aṭṭhakā days antaravāsaka an inner garment, especially the innermost of the three robes of a bhikkhu antaravassa the rainy season antarāvosāna giving up half-way antarāya an obstacle, hindrance; danger, accident; (euphemism for) ruin, death antarāyakara causing obstacles; preventing antarāyaṁ karoti hinders, prevents (+genitive rei and personae or +accusative personae, locative rei) antarāyika causing obstacles, forming an impediment antarena through, between (accusative or genitive) antarikā space between, interstice, interval; cleft, chink antarubbhāra the removal (of the kaṭhina), ending (of the kaṭhina period and its special allowances) before the usual time antava having an end, limited, finite antavat having an end, limited, finite antena at last, in the end antepura the royal palace, especially the inner apartments, the harem antevāsi ‘dwelling near or in the house (of his master)’, (who is) a (resident) pupil; an apprentice antevāsika (being) a (resident) pupil antevāsin ‘dwelling near or in the house (of his master)’, (who is) a (resident) pupil; an apprentice antevāsinī ‘dwelling near or in the house (of her master)’, (who is) a (resident) pupil; an apprentice antevāsinikamyatā a desire to get pupils antika teaching to; reaching to the end of antima last, final; lowest, meanest antimadehadhara who has his last body antimadehadhāri who has his last body antimadehadhārin who has his last body antimapurisa the last man, the meanest man; last of the line antimasārīra having his last body antimavattu an extreme offense anto (adverb) within, inside anto-ārāma the inner part of an ārāma anto-aruna the time before sunrise anto-āvasatha the inner part of a dwelling antogadha included; contained in antogata being within, turned inward; being contained within antojālīkata caught in a net; comprehended antojana the inner household; the family antojaṭa entangled within; inner entanglements antojaṭā entangled within; inner entanglements antojāta (a slave) born in the house (of his master) antokasambu rotten inside antokoṭṭhāgārika who has storerooms within, hoarding within antomana sad, melancholy antomanas sad, melancholy antonimuggaposi nourished while immersed within antonimuggaposin nourished while immersed within antoparisoka inner grief antopūti rotten inside antosimaṁ within the boundary antosīmāya within the boundary antosoka inner grief antovana the interior of a forest antovaṇṇa with color/class within antovassaṁ in the rainy season anu small, minute, atomic; subtle anu as prefix and preverb expresses: with, along; after, behind; subordinate to, inferior to; according to, in conformity with; severally one after the other; repeatedly anu-āgata (passive) followed by; affected by anu-ānayati leads or brings after oneself; incurs anu-aya lineage, succession; what follows, (logical) connection, inference, consequence anu-esanta null anu-esati searches; looks for anu-eti follows; goes along with anu-iti follows; goes along with aṇu-m-thūla fine and coarse; small and large anu-otthaṭa covered all over anuāviṭṭha entered (by), possessed (by) anubaddha (act.) following, keeping close to anubalappādana the giving of support; support anubandha (masculine) binding, bondage; encumbrance anubandhanta follows; keeps close to, attends closely; pursues anubandhati follows; keeps close to, attends closely; pursues anubandhi null anubandhiṁsu null anubandhissāmi null anubandhisuṁ null anubandhitabba null anubandhitvā null anubbigga null anubhāga an additional share anubhaṇanā assenting, approval, supporting anubhāsati speaks after, repeats; continually speaks ānubhāva majesty, splendor; authority; power, efficacy; magic or supernatural power; instrumental ~ena often expresses: by means of, owing to anubhavati experiences, enjoys, suffers; partakes of, has a share in; attains, is equal to; is able; suffices anubhavi null anubhavissāma null anubhavissati null ānubhi null anubhohisi null anubhoti experiences, enjoys, suffers; partakes of, has a share in. attains, is equal to; is able; suffices anubhūta experienced, suffered, enjoyed anubodhiṁ null anubrūhati makes increase, fosters; devotes oneself to; practices anubrūhaya null anubrūhayamāna null anubrūhayat null anubrūhayati makes increase, fosters; devotes oneself to; practices anubrūheti makes increase, fosters; devotes oneself to; practices anubrūhita increased; strengthened anubuddha (passive) realized, understood anubujjhati understands; is conscious of; recollects anucaṅkamamāna null anucaṅkamanta null anucaṅkamāpeti null anucaṅkamati walks up and down along; walks up and down with or after anucaṅkamiṁ null anucaṅkamiṁsu null anucarati walks after or along; walks with; follows; pursues; prosecutes anucariyā following; attendance anucariyamāna null anuccāritakamma null anucchava suitable, proper; fit for; corresponding to anucchavi suitable, proper; fit for; corresponding to anucchavika suitable (for); fit; proper anucchaviya suitable (for); fit; proper anuciṇṇa (passive) followed, practiced; pervaded; filled with anucintana thinking of; considering anudahati burns; consumes anuḍahati burns; consumes anudaka without water anūdaka without water anudasseti shows; instructs anudayā compassion, care anudayatā compassion, kindness, favor anuddayā compassion, care anuddayatā compassion, kindness, favor anuddhacca absence of over-excitement anuddhaṁsenta null anuddhaṁsesi null anuddhaṁseti disturbs, contaminates, taints anuddhaṁsita disturbed, contaminated anuddharitvā null anuddhata not puffed-up; not over-excited, not flurried; calm anuddhaṭa (also anuddhata)not puffed-up; not over-excited, not flurried; calm anuddiṭṭha null anudhamma natural state or essential property; right method; method according to the dhamma, to the doctrine aṇudhamma a mean practice anudhammacāri following the (right) doctrine; living in accordance with the doctrine anudhammacārin following the (right) doctrine; living in accordance with the doctrine anudhammaṁ in accordance with the dhamma, with the doctrine anudhammatā conformity to the doctrine; right method anudhaṁsana (falsely) accusing; (false) accusation; defamation anudhāvanaka pursuing; following anudhāvati runs after, follows; chases; runs along anudhāvi null anudhāvita pursuing anudisā an intermediate point of the compass anudisaṁ in all directions anudissati points out; declares; assigns, dedicates (a gift) anudiṭṭhi (dogmatic) view anudūta a messenger sent with another; a companion anuga going after, following, accompanying (+ genitive) anugacchanta null anugacchati goes along; goes after, follows; goes or falls into (acc) anugamāsi null anugaṇhāti favors, treats with kindness; protects, helps; acknowledges, admits anugata following; accompanied by; fallen or gone into; affected by; relating to anugāyati sings after; repeats in verse; recites (a text or hymn); praises anuggaha favor, kindness; help, assistance. (anu+ggaha) anuggāhaka helping; furthering anuggahāpenta null anuggahāpesi null anuggahāpeti causes (someone) to help, to favor anuggahāya null anuggahesi null anuggahetabba null anuggahetvā null anuggahi null anuggahita made happy; satisfied; helped, furthered anuggahitacitta not grasping in one’s thoughts anuggaṇhanta null anuggaṇhāpeti causes (someone) to help, to favor anuggaṇhāti favors, treats with kindness; protects, helps; acknowledges, admits anuggata arisen along with (anu+ggata) anugharakaṁ to each house; from house to house anugiddha greedy after, coveting anugijjhati covets, is greedy after anugīyati null anūhata not removed; not extracted, not rooted out anuhīramāna being held over anujagghanta null anujagghati laughs at; mocks anujānāti gives permission; grants, allows; grants leave; excuses; advises; prescribes anujāneti asks for or obtains permission or approval; asks leave anujāneyya null anujānitabba worthy of approval; allowable anujaññā null anujāta like, resembling; taking after, following the example of (one’s parents or teacher) anujīvi (adjective) living upon; dependent; (masculine) a follower, a dependent anujīvin (adjective) living upon; dependent; (masculine) a follower, a dependent anujīvita living after, living according to anujjuka not straight, crooked, curved; crafty anujuka not straight, crooked, curved; crafty anukampa null anukampā compassion, pity, mercy; kindness anukampaka kind, caring, compassionate anukampamāna null anukampanta null anukampat null anukampata compassion, kindness anukampati takes pity on; cares for; commiserates, sympathizes with (accusative or genitive) anukampi null anukampin compassionate; sympathizing with anukampita favored; pitied; treated with compassion anukantati cuts anukaronti null anukaroti does after; imitates, emulates; equals (genitive of person); follows anukassāmi I will recite, I will quote aṇukathūla fine and coarse anukkama an element in the training of horses anukkamamāna null anukkamat null anukkamati goes after, follow; treads upon anukkaṭṭhita not boiling anukkhepa throwing back; compensation anukkhipanta throwing away; rejecting; dismissing anukkhittaka who has not been suspended anukubba null anukubbanti null anukubbat null anukulaṁ in each family; according to custom anukulayañña (being) an offering according to family custom anukulesu in each family; according to custom anullapanā approbation, complimentary speech anuloma ‘with the hair’, in a natural direction or order; suitable anulomaṁ in a natural order; forwards anulomapaṭilena in direct and reversed order, forwards and backwards: anulomapaṭilomaṁ in direct and reversed order, forwards and backwards: anulomayati bends with; conforms to, is in accordance (with, accusative or genitive); sets right, puts in proper order anulometi bends with; conforms to, is in accordance (with, accusative or genitive); sets right, puts in proper order anulomika (adjective) suitable agreeable; in accordance ānulomika in regular order; conformable to, suitable anumajjanta null anumajjati rubs, wipes; beats; applies (continuous) pressure; considers thoroughly anumajjitvā null anumaññati assents to; approves; gives leave anumasati touches; takes hold of (to examine); considers, examines anumasi null anumassa examining each point; point by point anumāssa examining each point; point by point anumata approved, consented to; permitted anumatikappa the practice of carrying out a formal act without a quorum, intending to ratify it later anumatipakkha a consenting party aṇumatta of small size, atomic; least anuminitabba will have drawn an inference, concluded anumīyati infers; concludes anummattaka not distracted; not insane anumodaka who gives thanks; who gives approvals anumodamāna null anumodana approval, assent; thanks, expression of appreciation (especially in the form of a discourse by bhikkhus after receiving a meal or gifts) anumodaniya thanks; expression of appreciation anumodanīya thanks; expression of appreciation anumodanta null anumodati rejoices in, approves; thanks; gives thanks (especially with a benediction or discourse, see anumodana) anumodiṁsu null anumodita (from anumodati), one who rejoices in, one who approves anumoditabba in, one who approves anumoditar (from anumodati), one who rejoices in, one who approves anumoditvā null anūna not less; not deficient; complete; full anunadītīre along the bank of the river anūnaka not deficient, complete; having no lack (of, instrumental) anunaya affection, inclination towards; winning over, conciliation anunayamāna leading; conciliating; supplicating, persuading anunenta leading; conciliating; supplicating, persuading anuneta one who leads or persuades or conciliates anunetar one who leads or persuades or conciliates anunnala not boisterous; controlled anunnaḷa not boisterous; controlled anunnāmaninnāmi level; even anunnāmininnāmi level; even anuññāsi null anunnata null anuññāta allowed; permitted; prescribed; granted leave anuṇṇata null anuññātapatīññāta acknowledged and self-professed anuññeyya worthy of approval; allowable anupabbajā adopts the wanderer’s life after or in imitation (of another) anupabbajati adopts the wanderer’s life after or in imitation (of another) anupabbajiṁsu null anupacchinna null anupacita null anupada a following word; the following quarter-stanza anupādā not taking as one’s own, not holding on to; without (material) support, without dependence anupadajjeyya null anupadajjeyyāsi null anupādāna (adjective) without taking as one’s own, without holding on to; without (material) support, without fuel anupādāya not taking as one’s own, not holding on to, not grasping; without support, without dependence anupaddava free from misfortune or accident; safe; undamaged anupadduta not assailed; free from distress or calamity anupadeti gives (in addition), hands over, provides; encourages, supports anupadhika free from attachment; free from acquisitions (which lead to rebirth) anūpadhīka free from attachment; free from acquisitions (which lead to rebirth) anupādinna not evolved or derived, primary; not evolved by the influence of kamma; inanimate anupādiṇṇa not evolved or derived, primary; not evolved by the influence of kamma; inanimate anupādisesa (of nibbāna, at death) without any remnant of material support (the result of previous kamma), absolute anupādiya null anupādiyamāna null anupādiyat null anupagacchati goes over to, passes (into) anupagamana the not reaching, not entering upon anupagamma null anupagantvā null anupagata null anupaghāta (masculine) non-injury; the not hurting anupahacca null anupāhanā without sandals; barefoot anupahāra not bringing; non-supply anupāhāra not bringing; non-supply anupahata null anūpahata null anupajagghati laughs at, derides anupajjhāyaka without a teacher, without a preceptor anupakampati shakes; quivers anupakhajja null anūpakhajja null anupakhajjana (formed from anupakhajja) encroaching upon anupakhajjanta not encroaching upon anupakkama not the action (of another); not an act of violence anupakkhipitvā placing in anupakkilesa not a stain; non-defilement anupakkuṭṭha blameless; irreproachable anupakuṭṭha blameless; irreproachable anupalabbhamāna non-existent; is not perceived; is not ascertained anupalabbhiyamāna non-existent; is not perceived; is not ascertained anupalakkhaṇa lack of observation, lack of attention anupalitta not attached to; not sticking to anūpalitta not attached to; not sticking to anupama incomparable, peerless; excellent, best anūpama incomparable, peerless; excellent, best anupanāha freedom from resentment; goodwill anupanāhi not resentful; without rancor anūpanāhi not resentful; without rancor anupanāhin not resentful; without rancor anūpanāhin not resentful; without rancor anupanenta null anupaneyya null anupanisa lacking attention, inattentive anupanīta null anūpanīta null anupaññatta additionally ordered or ruled anupaññatti an additional or supplemental rule anupapanna null anupaparikkha null anupaparikkhat null anupapīḷa free from oppression; free from distress anupāpuṇāti reaches, attains; falls to one’s lot anupāpuṇitvā null anuparidhāva null anuparidhāvat null anuparidhāvati runs round and round; surrounds anuparigamma having went round about anuparigantuṁ to go round about anuparigantvā having went round about anupariharati surrounds, encircles; embraces anuparisakkana following, escorting anuparisakkati moves round after; escorts anuparivāreti surrounds; stands by, takes the side of anuparivatta null anuparivattat null anuparivattati turns or moves round after or along with; keeps on moving anuparivattīyati null anupariveṇiyam to every cell; cell by cell anupariyagā went round about; went around anupariyāsi see anupariyāti) anupariyāti goes round about; goes round after; travels about anupariyāya going around anupariyāyapatha a path leading round, an encircling path; a path on a rampart anupariyāyati goes round about; goes round after; travels about anupariyeti goes round and round; goes round in order anupasagga not causing trouble or misfortune anupasampanna null anupasaṅkanta null anupasanta null anupasaṭṭha free from trouble; free from affliction anupāsikā one who is not a female lay-disciple anupāsita null anupassagga not causing trouble or misfortune anupassaka looking at, regarding as; showing anupassati looks at; contemplates anupassaṭṭha free from trouble; free from affliction anupassi looking for; observing, considering anupassin looking for; observing, considering anupatati follows, pursues; falls in; falls upon, attacks anupāti following; attacking anupātin following; attacking anupatita following, accompanying, involved; followed by, affected with anupatitvā null anupatta (passive) attained, reached anupaṭṭhita null anupatti attainment; accomplishment anupavāda lack of abuse; not blaming or criticizing anūpavāda lack of abuse; not blaming or criticizing anupavādaka one who does not criticize or abuse anupavādi not criticizing anupavādin not criticizing anupavadita null anupavajja null anūpavajja null anupavattayati keeps moving on after (another) or in succession; continues, maintains anupavattesi null anupavatteti keeps moving on after (another) or in succession; continues, maintains anupavecchanta null anupavecchati gives, presents; supplies, confers upon anupavecchi null anupavisati enters (after); goes into; resorts to; is present (in) anupavisitvā null anupaviṭṭha having entered, gone into; resorted to; present (in) anupaya not going near (to); free from involvement anupāya not going near; free from involvement anūpaya not going near (to); free from involvement anupāyāsa trouble-free; not bringing annoyance anupekkhat null anupekkhati regards, considers carefully or continually anupekkhatt null anupekkheti null anupekkhi watching, regarding carefully or continuously anupekkhin watching, regarding carefully or continuously anupekkhita carefully or continually considered anupeti follows; goes over to; passes into anuposatha not an uposatha day anuposathikaṁ every uposatha day anuppāda non-appearance; non-production anuppadajjeyyāsi null anuppadajjuṁ null anuppadāna giving, providing, administering anuppadāsi null anuppadāta a giver; one who bestows anuppadātabba null anuppadātar a giver; one who bestows anuppadātuṁ null anuppādenta not producing, not generating, not bringing into being anuppadeti gives (in addition), hands over, provides; encourages, supports anuppādetvā null anuppadiyamāna being given anuppajjamāna null anuppakkhanda encroaching on, going over to anuppakkhandati pushes oneself forward, encroaches on; intrudes, works one’s way in; goes over to anuppanna null anuppannapaññatti a rule concerning a case not yet occurred anuppaññatta additionally ordered or ruled anuppaññatti an additional or supplemental rule anuppatta (passive) attained, reached anuppatta vayo having reached (old) age, old anuppatti attainment; accomplishment anuppavecchanta null anuppavecchati gives, presents; supplies, confers upon anuppavisati enters (after); goes into; resorts to; is present (in) anuppavisitvā null anuppaviṭṭha having entered, gone into; resorted to; present (in) anuppiḷa free from oppression; free from distress anuppiya (what is) pleasant, flattering; or pleasantly, flatteringly anuppiyabhāṇi flattering; saying (only) pleasant things anuppiyabhāṇin flattering; saying (only) pleasant things ānupubba order, regular order, succession anupubbakāraṇa gradual training anupubbakiriyā regular or gradual working anupubbaṁ in regular order, by turn; gradually anupubbanirodha successive cessation anupubbapaṭipadā regular or gradual progress anupubbasikkhā regular or gradual training anupubbaso in regular order anupubbavihāra gradual or successive stage (in meditation) anupubbavihāri moving through successive stages anupubbavihārin moving through successive stages anupubbena gradually; successively, in due course ānupubbikathā an exposition or narrative in a regular order; an account of previous events; a progressive or gradual sermon; instruction step by step anupucchamāna inquiring after anupuṭṭha asked anuraho in secret, in private anurakkha null anurakkhā guarding; preservation anurakkhana guarding, preservation, taking care of anurakkhaṇa guarding, preservation, taking care of anurakkhanta null anurakkhat null anurakkhati protects, guards; preserves; takes care of anurakkhissāmi null anurakkhitabba null anuratta attached or devoted to; fond of anurodha compliance, consideration, liking anurodhavirodha compliance, and opposition; liking and dislike anuruddha compliant; pleased with, approving anuruddhapaṭiviruddha approving and rejecting anurujjhati approves (of); is pleased or content anurūpikā conforming; suitable aṇusahagata having a very small part remaining; being very small; residual anusajjhāyati recites again; repeats anusampavaṅkatā being inclined towards; intimacy anusaṁsāvetvā having attended; having escorted anusaṁvaccharaṁ yearly; every year anusaṁyāyamāna null anusaṁyāyati goes through, travels about; inspects, supervises; goes along with, escorts anusaṁyāyitvā null anusañcaranta null anusañcarati goes around, walks about (with); walks along, traverses; considers anusandahati applies to, connects with, fixes on; aims at; conforms to anusandati flows, flows along; moves along, moves to; moves after anusandeti applies to, connects with, fixes on; aims at; conforms to anusandhati applies to, connects with, fixes on; aims at; conforms to anusaññāyati goes through, travels about; inspects, supervises; goes along with, escorts anusaññāyatuṁ null anusantata extended; continued anusantatavutti continually practicing anūsara not having saline soil anusarati follows, pursues; conforms oneself to anusārī a fragrant substance anusāsa (someone) for upasampadā; speaks repeatedly (in) anusāsaka order to win support) anusāsana advice; instruction anusāsanī advice; instruction; admonition anusāsanīpāṭiharīya the miracle of teaching (one of the three marvels of the Buddha) anusāsanīya null anusāsat null anusāsati teaches, instructs; advises, exhorts; guides, leads (a group); governs, administers anusāsayiṁ null anusāsi null anusāsikā who advises; an instructor, adviser; a preceptor anusāsita null anusāsitabba null anusāsitvā null anusāsiya null anusāsiyamāna null anusati recollection, remembrance, calling to mind anusāvana causing to be heard, sounding; proclamation (especially of a kammavācā) anusavati flows in; flows upon anusāveti causes to be heard; speaks out; proclaims (especially a kammavācā); presents (someone) for upasampadā; speaks repeatedly (in order to win support) anusaya (latent) disposition, tendency, propensity, inherence anusayi latent; persistent anusāyika inherent, persistent anusayin latent; persistent anusayita inherent, persistent, latent anuseti clings to, is occupied with anusikkha null anusikkhamāna null anusikkhanta null anusikkhat null anusikkhati learns, practices, studies; especially practices (something, accusative) in imitation of (somebody, genitive), follows someone’s example in; follows, imitates (someone, usually genitive, occasionally accusative) anusikkhi (from anusikkhati) studying, learning; following, imitating anusikkhin (from anusikkhati) studying, learning; following, imitating anusiṭṭha instructed, taught, advised anusiṭṭhi instruction; admonition; ordering anusocana mourning; sorrow anusocati bewails, mourns over, regrets anusotagāmi following the stream; going with the current anusotagāmin following the stream; going with the current anusotaṁ with the stream or current, downstream anusotapaṭisotaṁ up and down-stream anussada without excesses, without obtrusiveness anussadaka not overflowing anussādetvā null anussāha want of exertion or determination anussaṅki without apprehension, not fearful anussaṅkin without apprehension, not fearful anussara null anussaraṁ null anussaramāna null anussaraṇa remembrance; repeated recollection anussaraṇaka who remembers anussaranta null anussarat null anussarati follows, pursues; conforms oneself to anussarita one who remembers or recollects anussaritabba will remember; will recollect anussaritar one who remembers or recollects anussatānuttariya the supremacy of recollection anussati recollection, remembrance, calling to mind anussatiṭṭhāna a subject of recollection anussava what has been heard or repeated; hearsay; tradition anussāvaka one who proclaims (the kammavācā); one who presents for upasampadā anussāvana causing to be heard, sounding; proclamation (especially of a kammavācā) anussavappasanna who believes from hearsay or report anussavasacca depending on tradition for one’s truths; accepting tradition as true anussavati flows in; flows upon anussāvayati causes to be heard; speaks out; proclaims (especially a kammavācā); presents (someone) for upasampadā; speaks repeatedly (in order to win support) anussāvesi null anussāvesuṁ null anussāveti causes to be heard; speaks out; proclaims (especially a kammavācā); presents (someone) for upasampadā; speaks repeatedly (in order to win support) anussāvita announced; proclaimed anussāviyamāna being proclaimed; being announced anussita not exalted, humble anussuka not busy, quiet, unconcerned anussuta free from lust or defilement anusūyaka not envious; free from jealousy anusūyāyamāna not envious, not discontent anusuyyaka not envious; free from jealousy anusuyyāyamāna not envious, not discontent anutāpi repenting; regretting anutāpin repenting; regretting anutappa to be regretted; to be sorrowed over anutappati vexes; causes remorse (afterwards) anutappissati null anutīre alongside or near the bank (of a river) anutiṭṭha practiced, effected, done anutrāsa free from fear; unafraid ānutrāsi not fearful; not afraid ānutrāsin not fearful; not afraid anutrasta null anuttānīkata null anuttara having no superior; supreme, best anuttariya incomparable, excellent ānuttariya incomparable; preeminence; excellence ānuttāsi not fearful; not afraid ānuttāsin not fearful; not afraid anuṭṭhaha practice; performance (?) anuṭṭhahāna null anuṭṭhahat null anuṭṭhāna not getting up; lack of energy; laziness anuṭṭhāta one who does not exert himself anuṭṭhātar one who does not exert himself anutthavati praises; speaks of repeatedly anutthuna null anutthunanta null anutthunat null anutthunāti wails; deplores; laments (for) anutthuṇāti wails; deplores; laments (for) anuttiṇṇa who has not crossed over; not come out anutunī not menstruating; not in the fertile period anuvāceti recites after or again; teaches what has been taught anuvāda repetition, further explanation; approval, support; faction-forming anuvādadhikaraṇa a legal question or case concerning support, or concerning a faction, or a legal question or case arising from censure or criticism anuvadamāna null anuvadanā approval; support anuvadati repeats the words of; approves; agrees with anuvajja to be censured; a fault anuvasati inhabits; dwells; stays anuvasitvā null anuvassaṁ annually; every rainy season anuvassika one who has kept one vassa residence; who has passed one rainy season anuvāta a facing or border (on a bhikkhu’s robe) anuvātaṁ with the wind; downwind anuvattaka following, attending, faithful (to); agreeing with; a follower, partisan, adherent anuvattāpana making conform to anuvattati follows, attends, sides with; conforms with, practices; imitates anuvattayati causes to go on after, keeps in motion; maintains, continues anuvatteti causes to go on after, keeps in motion; maintains, continues anuvatti null anuvattitabbal to be followed; to be conformed to anuvattiya null anuvedha a further or second stab anuvicaramāna null anuvicaranta null anuvicarāpeti guides (someone) round anuvicarati wanders about or through; explores anuvicāraya null anuvicārayat null anuvicārayati gone through, explored; scrutinized anuvicāreti gone through, explored; scrutinized anuvicāretvā null anuvicarita gone through, explored; scrutinized anuvicca testing, examining; discerning, finding out anuviccakāra considered action; action undertaken after scrutiny anuvicinanta null anuvicināti investigates; examines anuvicintayati thinks or ponders over; meditates upon anuvicinteti thinks or ponders over; meditates upon anuvicintetvā null anuvidhāyaka acting in conformity with anuvidhīyanā acting in accordance with; acting in conformity anuvidhīyanta null anuvidhīyati acts in conformity with; follows the rules of, follows anuvidhiyyati acts in conformity with; follows the rules of, follows anuvidita thoroughly understanding; well informed anuvigaṇeti considers, regards; takes notice of, takes account of anuvijjā examining anuvijjaka an examiner; an adjudicator anuvijjamāna searching out, investigating; examining anuvijjiyamāna is searched out, investigated; is examined anuvikkhitta (further) dispersed, distracted anuvilokaya null anuvilokayat null anuvilokayati looks round at; surveys anuvilokesi null anuviloketabba null anuviloketi looks round at; surveys anuvisaṭa dispersed; spread; distracted anuvitakkaya null anuvitakkayat null anuvitakkenta null anuvitakketi reflects upon, ponders over anuvitakketvā null anuvivaṭṭa a side-piece of a bhikkhu’s robe anuvyañjanaggāhi occupying oneself with details or minor characteristics anuvyañjanaggāhin occupying oneself with details or minor characteristics anuvyañjanaṁ letter by letter anuvyañjanaso as to detail; in detail anuyāgi offering after the example of another anuyāgin offering after the example of another anuyanta following; a follower, a vassal anuyāta followed anuyāti goes after, follows; goes along through anuyāyati goes after, follows; goes along through anuyāyitvā null anuyoga application; devotion (to) anuyogabhaya fear of interrogation anuyogakkhama which can stand scrutiny; who is fit to be questioned anuyogaṁ dadāti answers the question (satisfactorily), passes an examination anuyogavatta procedure in examination anuyogi applying oneself to; devoted to anuyogin applying oneself to; devoted to anuyuñja null anuyuñjat null anuyuñjati practices, gives oneself up to anuyuñjiṁsu null anuyuñjisaṁ null anuyuñjiyamāna being questioned anuyuñjiyati practices, gives oneself up to anuyutta (adjective)applying oneself to, practicing; intent upon anuyyutta null anva-d-eva behind; afterwards anvaddhamāsaṁ every fortnight anvaḍḍhamāsaṁ every fortnight anvādhika extra; an extra supply anvāgameti makes follow; makes return anvāgata (passive) followed by; affected by anvagū (they) followed anvāhata struck; injured anvāhiṇḍati wanders about; wanders through anvakārī he threw out, cast, scattered anvakāsi he threw, scattered anvakkharaṁ syllable by syllable anvānayati leads or brings after oneself; incurs anvāsatta ensnared, entwined (by) anvāsavati flows after, flows upon, flows continually over anvāssavati flows after, flows upon, flows continually over anvāvaṭṭa following anvāvaṭṭati moves after, follows anvāvisati enters, occupies, possesses (said especially of Māra) anvāvisitvā null anvāviṭṭha entered (by), possessed (by) anvaya lineage, succession; what follows, (logical) connection, inference, consequence anvāya following; after; in consequence of anvāyika following; a follower anventa null anvesa null anvesaṁ null anvesanta null anvesat null anvesati searches; looks for anveti follows; goes along with āpa water, the element water apa-iti goes away; departs apabbūhati pushes aside, removes; (also apabyūhati, apaviyūhati, and apabyūheti) apabbūhitvā null āpabhinandi finding pleasure in (the element of) water āpabhinandin finding pleasure in (the element of) water apabodhati wards off; keeps clear of, avoids apabyāma to the left; placed on the left apabyūhati pushes aside, removes; (also apabbūhati, apaviyūhati, and apabyūheti) apabyūheti pushes aside, removes; (also apabyūhati, apaviyūhati, and apabbūhati) apaca “not cooking”, homeless apacaya diminution, decrease; loss, decay; especially diminution of kamma, decrease of the possibility of rebirth apacayagāmin leading to diminution apacāyamāna null apacayārāma finding delight in diminution apacāyati honors; respects apacāyika honoring; respecting apacca offspring, descendant apaccupekkhana disregarding; neglecting apacetabba to be honored; to be treated with respect apaceyya to be honored; deserving respect apacina not collecting; or watching over apācīna being below apācīnaṁ below; downwards apacinat null apacinati diminishes, makes less; dismantles, does away with apacināti diminishes, makes less; dismantles, does away with apacineyya to be respected; deserving honor apacinitva null apaciniyya to be respected; deserving honor apacita honored; esteemed apaciti honoring; respecting; homage āpadā misfortune; distress; calamity āpādaka (from āpādeti) bringing up, taking care of nurturing; (feminine) a nurse, a foster-mother apadāna cutting; reaping; harvest apadānasobhana made clear or manifest in actions or by its results āpadatthā (for use) in case of misfortune or accident āpadatthāya (for use) in case of misfortune or accident āpādayati causes to enter upon or reach (a state); brings to; brings up, nurtures āpādenta null āpādesi null āpādeta (from āpādeti) one who brings up, who nurtures āpādetar (from āpādeti) one who brings up, who nurtures āpādeti causes to enter upon or reach (a state); brings to; brings up, nurtures āpadī misfortune; distress; calamity āpādi null apadisati indicates, designates; refers to (as a witness); uses as a pretext apadisitabba null apadissati null āpādu null āpāduṁ null āpagā a river, a stream apagabbha interpreted by the Buddha as apa + gabbha, describing one who has destroyed the possibility of rebirth) timid, lacking boldness(?) of low birth? āpagaharaka who scorns or disparages (the element of) water apagata (adjective) gone, gone away (from); departed apagata-kāḷaka without speck or stain; without defect apagatagabbha without a fetus, having miscarried apagatajimha without a twist, without crookedness apagataphegguka with the accessory wood gone apagatavaṅka without bend or crookedness apahari taking away; stealing; a thief apaharin taking away; stealing; a thief apahata destroyed apahatta one who takes away or removes apahattar one who takes away or removes apāhatuṁ to take away; to remove; to ward off; to object to apajaha not giving up; grasping, greedy (?) āpajigucchaka who spurns or despises (the element of) water apajita conquered, lost; or a loss, a defeat āpajja null āpajjamāna null āpajjanta null āpajjati comes to, reaches; enters upon, falls into, is reduced to (a state or condition), is changed into; gets into trouble; commits an offense (with āpatti or used absolutely), transgresses; happens, occurs apajjhāyati is intent; is absorbed (in thought); broods āpajji null āpajjiṁsu null āpajjissatha null āpajjita (from āpajjati) one who enters upon; one who commits (an offense) āpajjitabba null āpajjitar (from āpajjati) one who enters upon; one who commits (an offense) āpajjitvā null apakaḍḍhanta null apakaḍḍhati draws away; takes off; removes; extracts; picks out apakaḍḍhi null apakantati cuts off apakāsati draws away; removes; draws back apakassa null apakassati draws away; removes; draws back apakaṭṭha drawn away, removed (from); loose apakiritūna throwing away; rejecting apakkamati departs; goes away; leaves; retires, turns aside apakkami null apakkamiṁsu null apakkamma null apakkanta gone away, departed apakkaṭṭha drawn away, removed (from); loose apalāḷana enticing, luring away apalāletabba null apalāḷeti entices, lures away apālamba a restraining rail on a carriage apalekhana scraping off apalepa lack of plaster apalepapatita falling down through the loss of plaster apalokana looking for approval or permission apalokana-kamma a (formal) act (of the saṅgha) giving permission or approval apalokayati looks towards; looks back; looks to, considers apalokenta null apalokesi null apaloketabba null apaloketi looks towards; looks back; looks to, considers apaloketvā looking towards; considering; asking permission; taking leave; consulting apalokita not liable to decay, not subject to destruction apamāra epilepsy apamārika epileptic apamāriya epileptic āpaṇa a stall (of goods for sale); a market; a shop apanaddha tied back; (or untied) apanaddhakalāpa with quiver tied behind; (or “with the hair-knot untied) āpāṇakoṭikaṁ until the end of one’s life, all one’s life apanamati bends away; bends down; goes away apanāmesi null apanāmeti makes bend down, lowers; turns away (transitive); takes away, removes apanāmetvā null apanata bent away; disinclined, averse apaṇata bent away; disinclined, averse apaneti leads away; removes; excepts, excludes; denies apanetvā null apaneyya null apaṅga a mark or circle drawn on the forehead or at the outer corner of the eye apāṅga a mark or circle drawn on the forehead or at the outer corner of the eye apanidha concealing apanidhāpeti null apanidhenta null apanidhesuṁ null apanidheti places aside; hides, conceals apanidhita removed hidden concealed āpaṇika a merchant, a shopkeeper apanīta taken away, removed; dispelled āpānīyakaṁsa a metal drinking bowl or cup full of drink apanīyati null apanīyyati null apañjasa going off one’s correct course āpanna (act.) having entered upon, reached (a state or condition); in trouble; who has committed an offense apaṇṇaka not doubtful, certain, sure; having a certain outcome apaṇṇakaṁ surely; certainly apaṇṇakata sure, safe, certain; having a certain outcome apanudita one who removes apanuditar one who removes apanujja having driven away; having removed apāpuraṇa a key apāpurati opens (a door) apāpurituṁ null apāpuritvā null apāpurīyati null apara another, a further, one more; following, subsequent; later; western aparaddha destroyed, disappeared aparaddhuṁ null aparādhenta null aparādheti lets (something) go wrong or fail; neglects aparādhi offending; criminal aparādhin offending; criminal aparādhita missed; done wrongly; neglected aparādika (one) who has offended or committed a fault, who has fallen short (of) aparajjhaṁ null aparajjhati misses (one’s aim), fails; wrongs or offends against (+accusative, gen/dative or locative) aparajju on the following day aparajjugata which occurred on the previous day aparaṁ again, further, moreover aparaṇṇa vegetables aparanta the future; a future or final state aparantakappika who theorizes about the future aparantanudiṭṭhi holding (false) views concerning the future aparantanudiṭṭhin holding (false) views concerning the future aparapajā grandchildren and descendants aparapara one after another; various; following aparaparaṁ to and fro; again and again; more and more aparena after, beyond; later on, afterwards aparighaṁsanta not rubbing or scraping aparissāvanaka (one who has no water-strainer aparitassa freedom from fear or worry aparitassi not trembling; without fear aparitassin not trembling; without fear apāruta open, opened apārutaghara living with open doors apasabya to the left, placed on the left apasādana reproach; disparagement apasādayati dismisses; rebukes, reproaches; disparages apasādesi null apasādeta (from apasādeti) one who rebukes; one who disparages apasādetabba null apasādetar (from apasādeti) one who rebukes; one who disparages apasādeti dismisses; rebukes, reproaches; disparages apasādetvā null apasādita dismissed; rebuked; disparaged apasādiyamāna null apasakkati goes away or aside apasammajjati sweeps away; winnows apasāraṇa removing; taking (a ship) out from land (?): apasavya to the left, placed on the left apasavyaṁ karoti goes round (something or someone) keeping one’s left side towards it or them (a mark of disrespect) apasavyato karoti goes round (something or someone) keeping one’s left side towards it or them (a mark of disrespect) apasmāra epilepsy apassāya null apassayati leans against; has a support in; depends upon apassena something to lean on or rely on; rest, s support apassenaka a rest, support apassenaphalaka a reclining board (to protect a wall) apasseta one who leans against apassetabba null apassetar one who leans against āpātaparipātaṁ using at and into; flying towards and around and into āpātha ‘area over which one moves’, region, sphere, range; field of perception āpāthagata come within range, perceivable; within the sphere of perception āpāthakanisādi sitting within the view (of men), in public āpāthakanisādin sitting within the view (of men), in public apattacīvaraka (one) who has no bowl or (bhikkhu’s) robe āpattādhikaraṇa a legal case or dispute concerning an offense apattha thrown away apatthaddha relying on (locative) apatthaṭa strewn (with), covered āpatti the entering into a state or condition; a fault, transgression, especially an offense committed by a bhikkhu, ’ committing (an offense) āpattibahula frequently or habitually committing offenses āpattigāmi guilty of an offense (not yet dealt with) āpattigāmin guilty of an offense (not yet dealt with) āpattikkhanda a group or category of offense: āpattikusalatā skill in discerning what is an offense āpattilesa an indirect, misleading statement of an offense āpattivuṭṭhāna removal of an offense; rehabilitation apātubha unscrupulous; dishonest; uncivilized apāṭubha unscrupulous; dishonest; uncivilized apāṭuka unscrupulous; dishonest apavadati reviles; denies; rejects apavahati carries off or away apaviddha thrown away; rejected, abandoned (often a dead body) apavīṇati observes attentively; watches; watches over apaviyūhati pushes aside, removes; (also apabyūhati, apabbūhati, and apabyūheti) apaviyūhitvā null apavyāma to the left; placed on the left apavyāmaṁ karoti keeping one’s left side towards it or them (a mark of disrespect) apavyāmato karoti goes round (something or someone) keeping one’s left side towards it or them (a mark of disrespect) apāya going away, departure; loss, decline; moral deterioration; perdition apāyagāmanīya leading to perdition, to an unhappy state; liable to perdition apāyakosalla knowledge about loss or decline apāyakusala knowledgeable about loss or decline apāyaṁsu had gone away; had retreated apāyamukha outlet (for water) apayāna going away, retreat apayanta is going away; is retreating apayāpetabba going away; retreating apayāpeti makes go, makes retreat; dismisses apāyati goes away; departs apāyi going away āpāyika belonging to a state of misery; (one) who is born in or doomed to existence in a state of misery, in a hell apayiṁsu had gone away; had retreated apāyin going away apekhā regard, attention, longing for (locative) apekhamāna null apekhati looks for, longs for, pays regard to (accusative or locative); has reference to apekhi regardful of; looking for apekhin regardful of; looking for apekkhā regard, attention, longing for (locative) apekkhamāna null apekkhati looks for, longs for, pays regard to (accusative or locative); has reference to apekkhava full of longing or desire (for, locative) apekkhavat full of longing or desire (for, locative) apekkhi regardful of; looking for apekkhin regardful of; looking for apesi a kind of gate or hurdle apeta gone away, departed (from); rid of; deprived of apetalomahaṁsa with excitement gone apetaviññāṇa without consciousness apeti goes away; departs api even, also; even though, although api ca and yet, nevertheless; but, however; moreover api ce even if api hi although api nu null api nu kho null api nūna null api ssu and further, moreover api ssudaṁ and further, moreover apidhāna a cover; a lid apihālu without desire; not envious apilāpati recites āpo water, the element water āpokasiṇa meditation based on water; the meditation-object water appa (adjective) small, little; trifling; few; rare; iic: very little, next to nothing (almost equivalent to a negative) appābādha (masculine) little or no sickness, good health appabhassa talking little appabhikkhuka with few bhikkhus appadassa of little vision; of little knowledge appadhaṁsika no to be destroyed; invincible appadhaṁsiya no to be destroyed; invincible appaggha of little value or price appāhāra eating little appaharita (adjective) with few or no green plants appaka (adjective) little, small, insignificant; rare; (plural) few appakasirena with little difficulty appakicca with few duties or cares; involving few duties or tasks appakiṇṇa not crowded appākiṇṇa not crowded appalābha receiving little gain or profit appamaññā boundlessness, infinitude (as name for the brahmavihāras) appamaññati thinks little of; underrates, despises appamatta of small measure, little, insignificant appamattā a small matter; a trifle appamattaka (adjective) little, slight, insignificant appamattika with little clay appameyya immeasurable; infinite, boundless appanā determining, fixing; especially the fixing of thought on an object, complete concentration appaṇā determining, fixing; especially the fixing of thought on an object, complete concentration appāṇaka name of a certain form of jhāna (prob, involving holding one’s breath) appaññātaka lack of fame, lack of reputation appapurisa with few men, with few males appapurisaka with few men, with few males apparajakkha with little or no passion or impurity apparajakkhajātika being by nature free from passion appasacca little learning appasadda free from noise, quiet appasattha with a small caravan appassāda of little enjoyment; affording little pleasure appassaka having little property appassuta of little learning, uneducated appasuta of little learning, uneducated appātaṅka (masculine) little or no illness, good health appatara smaller; less numerous; shorter appathāmaka having little strength; weak appatikkha (according to commentary) not worthy of consideration or respect appaṭikkha (according to commentary) not worthy of consideration or respect appaṭimaṁsa not being seized or inquired into; faultless appaṭisaṁvedana lacking feeling; not experiencing appaṭisaṁviditvā without experiencing appaṭisandhika not to be put together again appatissa not deferential; not obedient appaṭissa not deferential; not obedient appatitthīna not stiffened, not obdurate against: appatiṭṭhīna not stiffened, not obdurate against: appaṭivānī not giving up, not turning away (from); non-weariness appaṭivāṇī not giving up, not turning away (from); non-weariness appaṭivānitā the state of not giving up, not turning away (from); non-weariness appaṭivānīya not to be given up; not causing weariness or satiety appativattiya not to be turned or rolled back; not to be black; irresistible appaṭivattiya not to be turned or rolled back; not to be black; irresistible appaṭṭha concerned with few or small affairs; involving little exertion; having little to do; having few needs appaṭṭhatara less difficult appātuma having a small or limited or mean personality appayati puts in, inserts; fixes on, fastens; directs, turns towards, especially directs the mind (upon), concentrates, achieves a state of concentration; delivers up, gives; displays, exhibits appāyuka short lived appe kacca usually; (repeated) some… others… appekacca usually; (repeated) some… others… appekadā sometimes appesakkha insignificant; petty; not respected appeti puts in, inserts; fixes on, fastens; directs, turns towards, especially directs the mind (upon), concentrates, achieves a state of concentration; delivers up, gives; displays, exhibits appeva nāma it is well, if apphoṭayati makes a clapping noise by slapping one’s arm or clapping one’s hands (in pleasure or approbation) apphoṭeti makes a clapping noise by slapping one’s arm or clapping one’s hands (in pleasure or approbation) appiccha having few wishes; desiring little; content appita firm, compact, thick (of cloth) appitthika with few women appodaka (adjective) having little or no water appossuka unconcerned, indifferent; free from care; not being active or exerting oneself appossukka unconcerned, indifferent; free from care; not being active or exerting oneself appuyya having reached; having attained; having pervaded apuccaṇḍatā ‘the not being like a rotten egg’, soundness āpuccha null āpucchā null āpucchat null āpucchati asks; asks permission, asks leave (for); takes leave (of); bids farewell (to) āpucchi null āpucchiṁsu null āpucchita (act.) (adjective) having taken leave; having asked for permission; (neuter) asking permission, taking leave āpucchitabba null āpucchitūna null āpucchitvā null āpūrati becomes full; increases aputtaka without a son; childless; without heirs ara the spoke of a wheel ārā far off, at a distance; far from ((+ablative) ārabbha undertaking; making a starting point of; taking as subject-matter; with reference to; concerning (+ accusative or genitive) ārabbhati takes hold of; begins, undertakes, embarks upon; starts, initiates ārabha null ārabhamāna null ārabhat null ārabhati takes hold of; begins, undertakes, embarks upon; starts, initiates ārabhiṁsu null ārabhissati null ārabhiyamāna null ārācāri living remote; living far from (unwholesome) ārācārin living remote; living far from (unwholesome) āracayāracayā arranging again and again; pulling this way and that āraddha accomplished, achieved; pleased; satisfied āraddhā having begun or started ārādhaka who conciliates, wins approval; accomplishing, fulfilling; successful ārādhana conciliating, winning over; accomplishment; success ārādhanīya (adjective) to be fulfilled, to be achieved ārādhapekha looking for favor, wishing to gratify ārādhayati wins the favor or approval of, conciliates, propitiates; honors, satisfies; accomplishes, fulfills, carries to a successful end; achieves, gains ārādhayiṁsu null ārādhayitvā null ārādhesi null ārādheti wins the favor or approval of, conciliates, propitiates; honors, satisfies; accomplishes, fulfills, carries to a successful end; achieves, gains ārādhetvā null ārāgga the point of an awl araha deserving, worthy (of); proper, fit (to) arahaddhaja the emblem of the arahat (the yellow robe) arahaggata directed towards arahats; (or directed towards the worthy) arahantaghātaka the killer of an arahat arahantavāda the title of an arahat arahat ‘a worthy one’, an arahat; (in Buddhism) one who has realized nibbāna; one in whom the āsavas are destroyed and who is no longer liable to rebirth arahati is worthy of, deserves; is entitled to; is fit to; ought to; should, must (+ inf.) arahatta the state or condition of an arahat; arahatship arahattamagga the path of arahatship, the progress towards arahatship arahattaphala the fruit, the fulfillment of arahatship (i.e. nibbāna) arājaka without a king ārajayārajayā scoring again and again arājika without a king āraka distant, far from ārakatta the state of being far from ārakkha a guard, protection; preservation; keeping fast ārakkhādhikaraṇaṁ as a consequence of guarding or holding fast ārakkhasārathi a guarding charioteer ārakkhat guarding, keeping watch over, preserving ārāma a pleasure-grove, a garden, a park, especially one given for the benefit of bhikkhus (and containing shelters or dwellings) ārāmacetiya (also ārāmacetya)a shrine in a park; a park ārāmacetya (also ārāmacetiya)a shrine in a park; a park ārāmanisādi living near a park ārāmanisādin living near a park ārāmapāla a keeper or guardian of a park ārāmapesaka a superintendent of the park-servants ārāmarāmaṇeyyaka the loveliness of parks; a beautiful park ārāmaropa a planter of gardens or parks āramati ceases, stops; leaves off; keeps away (from) ārāmavatthu the site or ground for a park ārambha wrongly directed exertion or action ārambhati takes hold of; begins, undertakes, embarks upon; starts, initiates ārāmika an attendant or servant (to the bhikkhus) in a park: ārāmikini a female servant in an ārāma, or the wife of an ārāmika ārammaṇa basis, starting point (for producing or initiating activity), footing; basis of meditation; object, object of consideration, sense-object araṇika one of the tools for kindling fire araṇisahita the fire implements, the kindling stick ārañjita slashed or scored; a mark, a furrow arañña wilderness; forest, jungle; the wild ārañña being in a forest, in the wild; forest-born, wild āraññaka (adjective) belonging to the forest or the wild; living in the wild; wild; who has undertaken the dhutaṅga of living in the wild āraññakaṅga the practice of living in the wild (one of the dhutaṅgas): araññavihāra (the ascetic) life in the wild; a dwelling in the wild araññāyatana a place in the forest, a forest haunt āraññika (adjective) belonging to the forest or the wild; living in the wild; wild; who has undertaken the dhutaṅga of living in the wild āraññikaṅga the practice of living in the wild (one of the dhutaṅgas): ārati abstinence; keeping away from; aversion aritta a pole used as a punting pole or rudder ariṭṭha a kind of decoction or liquor ariṭṭhaka (masculine) (the fruit of) the soap-berry tree ariya (adjective) belonging to the Ariya people ariyaddasa seeing what belongs to the noble ones, what is noble ariyagarahi reproaching, censuring the noble ones ariyagarahin reproaching, censuring the noble ones ariyaka (neuter) the Ariya language ariyamagga a path of the noble ones; the noble path (often – the eightfold path); the noble course (of sotāpatti etc.) ariyasacca a truth of the noble ones; a sublime truth ariyasīli having the (moral) nature of a noble one, of sublime practice ariyasīlin having the (moral) nature of a noble one, of sublime practice ariyavaṁiksa practicing the traditions of the noble ones, belonging to the noble tradition; who recites the Ariyavaṁsa-sutta ariyavaṁsa a tradition of the noble ones; a noble lineage or tradition ariyavāsa a way of living of the noble ones; a sublime state ariyavihāra a mode of life of the noble ones; a sublime state ariyavohāra the way of speaking of the noble ones; a noble mode of speech ariyavutti noble in conduct ariyāyatana the region of the Ariyas ariyūpavādi speaking ill of the noble ones, insulting the noble ones ariyūpavādin speaking ill of the noble ones, insulting the noble ones ārocāpesi caused to tell; caused to announce ārocāpesum they tell; they announce ārocāpetabba will announce; will inform; will tell ārocāpetvā told; announced; informed ārocenta null ārocesi null ārocesiṁ null ārocesuṁ null ārocetabba null āroceti announces; informs; tells (something, accusative, to someone, dative/genitive, occasionally accusative) ārocetvā null ārocimha null ārocita announced, declared; told ārodana weeping; lamenting arogāpeti cures, makes well ārogiya freedom from disease; health, well-being ārogya freedom from disease; health, well-being ārohana climbing, ascending, mounting ārohaṇa climbing, ascending, mounting ārohanīya fit to be mounted ārohaṇīya fit to be mounted ārohanta null ārohati mounts, climbs, goes up; gets on to or into, steps on to; climbs on or into ārohitvā null āropamānaka raising, erecting; (or being impaled upon) āropanā raising, putting on or into; impaling (on a stake); stringing (of a bow); ascribing, indictment āropayati makes climb, makes go on to or into; puts on to or into, raises; draws (water); impales (on a stake); strings (a bow); plants āropesuṁ null āropetabba null āropeti makes climb, makes go on to or into; puts on to or into, raises; draws (water); impales (on a stake); strings (a bow); plants āropetvā null āropita made to climb; raised; put on or into; refuted, laid bare arosaneyya not to be angered, not irritable arugatta with sores on all limbs āruha null āruhana climbing, ascending, mounting ārūhana climbing, ascending, mounting āruhanta null ārūhanta null āruhat null āruhati mounts, climbs, goes up; gets on to or into, steps on to; climbs on or into ārūhati mounts, climbs, goes up; gets on to or into, steps on to; climbs on or into āruhi null āruhitvā null ārūhitvā null aruka a sore arukāya a mass of sores āruḷha (act.) who has climbed, mounted; gone on to, gone into; brought to ārūḷha (act.) who has climbed, mounted; gone on to, gone into; brought to aruṇa the dawn; first light aruṇagga the first break of day; dawn; (also written as aruṇugga) aruṇaṁ uṭṭhāpeti lets the dawn arise, appear (while doing something); (carries on doing something) until dawn aruṇugga the first break of day; dawn aruṇuggamana dawn; sunrise arūpamacitta whose thoughts are like a (tender) sore āruppa (neuter masculine) formless, immaterial state or existence (especially referring to the arūpajhānas) āruppaṭṭhayi being or living in a formless or immaterial existence āruppaṭṭhayin being or living in a formless or immaterial existence āruppavasī being or living in a formless or immaterial existence āruppavasīn being or living in a formless or immaterial existence āruyha null āruyhati mounts, climbs, goes up; gets on to or into, steps on to; climbs on or into āruyhi null asa permanent; eternal āsā wish, hope, expectation asabbha unbecoming, vulgar, low; uncivil; indecent, improper āsabha coming from or produced from a bull; bull-like; belonging to a leader; lordly āsada approach; attack, attacking āsadā null āsādana insult, offensiveness āsādanapekkha looking to insult, aiming to be offensive āsādayati meets, encounters, reaches; approaches with (physical or verbal) violence; strikes against, hits; offends, insults asaddhiya disbelief; lack of faith āsādesi null āsādetabba null āsādeti meets, encounters, reaches; approaches with (physical or verbal) violence; strikes against, hits; offends, insults āsādi null āsādimhase null āsādiya null āsado null asahānadhammatā the not being liable to fail or be wanting; the having qualities which are not liable to fail (?): āsajja null āsajjana null āsajjanaṁ null asakāma unwilling, not consenting; discontented; unsatisfied āsāḷhi the full-moon day in the month āsāḷha; (iic) the month āsāḷha asaṁ permanent; eternal asampakampi not shaking, not trembling; unshakable asampakampin not shaking, not trembling; unshakable asampavedhi not trembling; unshakable asampavedhin not trembling; unshakable āsaṁsa null āsaṁsuka full of expectation; hoping asana eating; food āsana sitting; a place for sitting āsanantarikā an interval or seat āsanapariyanta the last seat āsandi a large or long chair (generally made of basket-work) āsandika a bench; a chair āsandipañcama with a chair as the fifth’, four carrying a chair (as a bier) asaṅgahaka lacking kind treatment; not helpful, unsympathetic asanī a thunderbolt; a lightning flash asanivicakka a ring of lightning or thunderbolts āsaṅkamāna null āsaṅkati suspects; distrusts; fears āsanna (adjective) near, near at hand; close together; ~aṁ, adverb, near āsasāna null asati eats; enjoys āsāṭikā the egg of a fly or other insect; a nit; vermin āsatta fixed or fastened to; attached to; intent on (+ locative) asatthika not traveling with a company or caravans āsatti attachment; clinging to āsava ‘inflowing’, influence (the concerns, attitudes, predispositions, listed as kāma, bhava, avijjā, and sometimes, diṭṭhi, which form an obstacle to the realization of the truth āsāvacchedika depending on the disappointment of expectation āsavakhīna with āsavas destroyed; free from the āsavas āsavakkhaya ending, destruction of the āsavas, arahatship āsavaṭṭhaniya being a basis or cause of afflictions; being a basis or cause of the āsavas āsaya resting-place; home, lair, nest; receptacle; the stomach asecanaka never causing surfeit; (according to commentaries : not requiring anything added) asenāsanaka without lodgings asenāsanika without lodgings āseva null āsevamāna null āsevanā assiduous practice; habitual cultivation āsevanta null āsevat null āsevati attends to, practices, cultivates; indulges in āseviṁ null āsevita practiced; cultivated āsevitabba null asi a sword; a (butcher’s) knife (?) āsi (present 2 singular of āsati) you sit; or you are asicamma a sword and shield āsīdati approaches; meets with, encounters; approaches with (physical or verbal) violence; strikes against, hits; offends, insults āsīditvā null asiloma with swords or knives for hair āsiṁ null āsiṁsa null āsiṁsamāna null āsiṁsāpeti null āsiṁsat null āsiṁsati hopes for; desires āsīna encounters; approaches with (physical or verbal) āsiñcati (transitive) pours on or into; showers over; be-sprinkles, wets āsiñci null āsiñcitabba null āsiñcitvā having poured on or into; dripped asipattavana a forest of trees with swords or knives for leaves asīsaka without a head, headless asissaṁ null asissāmi null asisūnā a butcher’s knife and chopping block asita scythe; sickle asitatiga overcoming the dark (fortnight?): asitavyābhaṅgī sickle and carrying pole or flail asīti eighty asītika of eighty years; eighty years old āsītika of eighty years; eighty years old āsītikapabba a knot or joint of the āsītika creeper āsitta poured on or into; sprinkled āsittaka with something poured in or on; filled; be-sprinkled, moistened āsittakupadhāna a basin or saucer filled (with hot liquid) āsivisa a poisonous snake asma a stone asman a stone asmimāna the conviction ‘I am’, the conviction of individuality; egotism asnāti eats; enjoys assa a horse; plural also; cavalry assāda tasting, tasting with relish, enjoying; taste, flavor; enjoyable taste; enjoyment assadamaka a horse-breaker, a horse-tamer assādana tasting; enjoying; flavor, enjoyable taste assādayati tastes, tastes with relish; relishes, enjoys, takes pleasure assaddhiya disbelief; lack of faith assādeti tastes, tastes with relish; relishes, enjoys, takes pleasure assādiyati tastes, tastes with relish; relishes, enjoys, takes pleasure assadūta a mounted messenger assājāneyya a thoroughbred horse assājānīya a thoroughbred horse assaka without property, poor; owning nothing assakāya a cavalry corps; a body of a horse assakhaluṅka an unmanageable, inferior horse; a young untrained horse assaṁ null assama a hermitage; the forest dwelling of an ascetic assāma null assamaṇḍalikā a horse-pen; an exercise-ring assamedha the horse-sacrifice assamiya living in the hermitage (of) assapaṇīya horse for sale assapiṭṭha a horse’s back assapiṭṭhi a horse’s back assapuṭa (neuter) a bag of ashes (used as (symbolic) punishment) assaratana a precious horse, an excellent horse; especially the ‘horse-treasure ‘ (one of the seven ratanas of a cakkavatti(n) king) assāroha a horseman; a rider; a groom assārūha a horseman; a rider; a groom assāsa breathing; breath assasadassa a good noble horse assāsaka wish; aspiration assasammadda thronged with horses assāsaniya comforting; encouraging assasanta null assāsapassāsa breathing in and out; breathing, breath; labored breathing assāsapatta full of confidence; encouraged assāsappatta full of confidence; encouraged assasati breathes, breathes in; breathes on; breathes heavily assāsati breathes, breathes in; breathes on; breathes heavily assāsenta encouraging; comforting (with); letting recover assāsetabba will let recover; will encourage assāsetvā having made recover assasi comforted assasitvā null assatara a mule assatarī a female mule assatha null assattha the holy fig tree ficus religiosa assatthara (a bed covered) with a horse-blanket assava obedient; compliant; biddable assāva purulent matter; discharge assavati flows (towards) assāvi discharging (as a wound); emitting fluid (as an elephant in rut) assāvin discharging (as a wound); emitting fluid (as an elephant in rut) assita having recourse to, resorting to; living in; depending on assu a tear; tears assudaṁ indeed; certainly assuka a tear; tears assumukha with tearful face, with a face wet with tears asu that (as opposed to ayaṁ); such and such, a certain asucīka impurity or impure asucīkamissita mixed with or associated with impurity or the impure asuka such and such; so and so; a certain āsuṁ null āsumbhati lets fall, drops; throws down āsumbhiṁsu null āsumbhitvā null āsumhati lets fall, drops; throws down asura one of a class of supernatural beings, opposed to the devas; a titan asurakāya the asura world or sphere; a collective body of asuras asurinda a chief or lord of the asuras aṭalī having several linings (of a certain kind of shoe) aṭani part of a bed or chair (probably the rails forming the frame) ātaṅkaphassa contact with disease; the touch, the sensation of sickness ātapa sunlight; heat of the sun; heat light ātāpanaparitāpanānuyoga the practice of self-mortification and torture ātāpeti heats; consumes by heat; tortures, inflicts pain on ātāpetvā null ātāpi zealous, exerting oneself; zeal; exertion ātāpin zealous, exerting oneself; zeal; exertion ātāpita heated ātāpiya energetic; zealous; exerting oneself atappa the name of one of the highest classes of devas, the second class of suddhāvāsa devas ātappa heat; zeal; ascetic energy; exertion aṭaṭa the name of a hell or place in Avīci (where one suffers for an aṭaṭa (high number) of years) aṭavisaṅkopa unrest in forest districts; disturbance of bandits or wild tribes atha and, and further atha ca pana and yet; on the other hand atha kho moreover atha vā or; or rather, or perhaps (in commentaries, introducing an alternative (preferred?) explanation) atha vā pi or also; and also athabbana (what belongs to) the Atharva-veda; a spell or a charm from the Atharva-veda athabbaṇa (what belongs to) the Atharva-veda; a spell or a charm from the Atharva-veda āthabbana (what belongs to) the Atharva-veda; a spell or a charm from the Atharva-veda āthabbaṇa (what belongs to) the Atharva-veda; a spell or a charm from the Atharva-veda athāparaṁ and further atho and also; likewise; and yet, even then ati prefix to nouns, adjectives, adverbs; preverb to verbs; before vowels (except ī-) generally, but not always, taking the form acc- ati-r-iva excessively; exceedingly ati-uṇha too hot; very hot atibaddha tied together, coupled atibandhitvā tying together, coupling aticarati goes beyond the bounds; transgresses sexually (against), is unfaithful (to); commits adultery aticāri transgressing; unfaithful aticārī null aticārin transgressing; unfaithful aticārini transgressing; an unfaithful wife aticarita who transgresses; commits adultery aticaritar who transgresses; commits adultery aticārītta null aticariyā (sexual) transgression; unfaithfulness aticca passing beyond; overcoming; being beyond; transgressing (against) atidhāvati runs past, outstrips; goes too far; goes against, transgresses atidhāvitabba null atidhonacāri (according to commentary) immoderate in the use of the requisites of a bhikkhu, or transgressing the proper use of the requisites atidhonacārin (according to commentary) immoderate in the use of the requisites of a bhikkhu, or transgressing the proper use of the requisites atidiṭṭhayā as regards to belief, view atiga going beyond; escaping from; transgressing atiharanta null atiharāpesuṁ null atiharāpetabba null atiharāpeti causes to bring in; collects, harvest, confiscates atiharāpetvā null atiharati brings over, brings, brings to; carries over atiharitabba null atiharitvā null atihita brought in, harvest atikaḍḍhati pulls or presses too much or very much; harasses (?) atikāḷa too dark atikālassa very early; too early atikāle very early; too early atikālena very early; too early atikāḷikā too dark atikamma passing; passing through; surpassing; having gone beyond, beyond; beyond the norm; passing by, neglecting; transgressing; passing beyond, escaping, overcoming; (with expressions of time) after atikaṇha too dark atikata more than repaid; paid back excessively atikhīṇa scattered atikisa too thin atikkama going over or further; passing, passing beyond; overcoming atikkamaka going over atikkamanta null atikkamati passes, passes through, passes by; elapses, passes (of time); steps over; goes beyond; surpasses; overcomes atikkāmaya null atikkāmayat null atikkāmayati lets pass, makes pass over, takes over; lets elapse atikkāmenta null atikkami null atikkamiṁsu null atikkāmita let pass, taken beyond atikkamitabba to be passed by; to be gone beyond; to be transgressed against atikkamitvā null atikkamma passing; passing through; surpassing; having gone beyond, beyond; beyond the norm; passing by, neglecting; transgressing; passing beyond, escaping, overcoming; (with expressions of time) after atikkanta having passed through or by; having gone beyond, overcome, surpassed; having elapsed atikkanta-mānussaka superhuman atikkanta-vara beyond or above granting boons atimāna pride; arrogance; conceit; high opinion (of oneself) atimandhāka too small (?) atimāni proud; conceited atimānin proud; conceited atimaññamāna null atimaññati despises, slights, neglects atimaññe null atimaññetha null atimaññeyya null atimaññitabba null atimāpaya null atimāpayat null atimāpeti injures; destroys atimāpita killed atimaṭāhaka too short (?) atimuttakamala a garland of the atimuttaka shrub’s flower (perhaps Ougeinia oojeinensis) atināmayati spends (time), lets (time) elapse; lets the time passive atinetabba bringing up to; leading into, bringing in atinetvā having brought up to; having lead into, brought in atinijjhāyitatta excessive gazing upon atinipāta self-abasement atipassitvā out-flanking (?) atipātāpayati causes to injure or kill atipātaya null atipātayat null atipātayati makes fly through or past atipātenta null atipāti transgressing; attacking, injuring atipātin transgressing; attacking, injuring atīraka unlimited atireka (what is) extra, surplus; too many, too much, excessive; more (than); superior, higher; iic: more than…; an extra…; a greater, a superior…; ifc (following numerals); plus; atirekaṁ, atirekena, atirekato, adverb, especially; more, still more (than) atiritta left over; remaining; extra, surplus atirocatha null atirocati outshines; surpasses in splendor; shines magnificently atīsāra a going beyond, deviation; transgression atīsaraṁdiṭṭhi excessive view(s); deviant view(s) atisāri going beyond; transgressing atisārin going beyond; transgressing atisitvā going beyond; passing over, overlooking atīta (adjective) past, gone by; former, belonging to past times atītaṁ in the past atītam addhanaṁ in the past atītaṁsa the past atitarati passes over, crosses; goes beyond, surpasses atītasatthuka no longer having a master or teacher atītasmim in the past atītaṭṭha who has missed his profit atītayobbana whose youth has passed atīte in the past ātitheyya a gift of hospitality, a gift to a guest atithī a guest; stranger atithibali offering to a guest atithikaraṇīya hospitality atitiriya null atīva very much, exceedingly ativāha what leads across, a guide, a conveyance ativākya abuse, blame, reproach ativannati overpowers, overwhelms ativassati rains very much or too much; rains upon, rains into ativassi null ativatta overcoming ativattati goes beyond, escapes from; exceeds, overwhelms; goes too far; transgresses (against) ativeṭhayati presses ativijjha having pierced through, penetrated ativisa a kind of plant ativiya excessively, very much, especially, much more than’ atiyāti (re-)enters ato from there; from this; than this; therefore atra here; in this; in this respect, in this case atraja (adjective) born from oneself, one’s own; (masculine) a son; (feminine) a daughter atta the self, the soul, as a permanent, unchangeable, autonomous entity (always rejected by the Pāḷi Buddhist texts as not corresponding to any reality) aṭṭa a watchtower ātta taken; assumed; grasped atta-d-attha one’s own profit or interest; one’s own goal atta-n-tapa self-mortifying; hurting oneself attabhara supporting only oneself attabhāva bodily form, body; existence as an individual; living being attabhāvapaṭilābha the becoming reborn as an individual; reincarnation; type of body or existence attabhāvi having a body attabhāvin having a body attacatuttha with oneself as the fourth; with three others attādāna taking upon oneself; a legal process (of the saṅgha) initiated by oneself attadhīna dependent upon oneself (only); independent attadhipaka with the self, with oneself as master; controlled by the self attādhipateyya controlled by oneself attadīpa relying on oneself; with oneself as an island, a refuge attadutiya with oneself as the second; with a companion attagarahi blaming oneself; reproaching oneself attagarahin blaming oneself; reproaching oneself attaghañña self-destruction attahetu for one’s own sake attaja born from oneself proceeding from oneself; one’s offspring aṭṭaka a (temporary) platform; scaffolding attakāma (adjective) (sometimes confused with atthakāma) wishing one’s own (spiritual) benefit attakāra action by oneself; a personal service aṭṭakāraka one of the parties in a lawsuit aṭṭakaraṇa (the place for) dealing with lawsuits; seats of judgment, courtroom aṭṭakārikā one of the parties in a lawsuit attakilamatha self-mortification attamana pleased; content; willing attamāraṇiya causing death to oneself attan the self, the soul, as a permanent, unchangeable, autonomous entity (always rejected by the Pāḷi Buddhist texts as not corresponding to any reality) aṭṭāna a rubbing board?; a post incised with squares and used as a scrubber by bathers attānam is used with future passive participle as if nominative neuter attanīya belonging to one ‘s self one’s own; belonging to an (enduring) self or soul; what belongs to one’s self; what belongs to an (enduring) self or soul āttañjaha abandoning what has been grasped āttañjahadaṇḍa who has taken a stick in hand, who has embraced violence attaññu knowing oneself attanudiṭṭhi dogma about the self; belief in an (enduring) self or soul attanupkkhi watching oneself attanupkkhin watching oneself attanuvādabhaya fear of self-reproach attanuyogi intent upon oneself or one’s own interest āttanuyogi intent on what one has taken up attanuyogin intent upon oneself or one’s own interest āttanuyogin intent on what one has taken up attapaṭilābha acquisition of a self; type of personal existence attarūpa very complete; (or quite personal) aṭṭassara a cry of distress attaṭhapañña wise only for oneself; concerned with oneself only (so sometimes commentaries); (same as atta) attatta one’s own profit or interest; one’s own goal attaṭṭapañña looking (only) after one’s own profit or interest; (who is) wise as to his own advantage attatthiya concerned with one’s own goal attavādupādāna grasping the theory of an (enduring) self or soul attavetanabhata supported by one’s own earnings attavyābādha one’s own distress attha aim, purpose, goal; advantage, profit, benefit aṭṭha eight atthabaddha bound to (one) for the meaning atthacara who is helpful, who does good, brings benefit; who serves atthacaraka null atthacariyā conduct bringing benefit, helpful conduct; especially benevolent behavior, helpful advice aṭṭhacattārīsa forty eight aṭṭhacattārīsaṁ forty eight aṭṭhādasa eighteen atthadassi seeing the goal or what is beneficial atthadassin seeing the goal or what is beneficial aṭṭhadhā in eight parts aṭṭhadoṇa divided into eight measures atthagama annihilation, disappearance atthagata set (of the sun) aṭṭhaguṇaṁ eight times; eight times as much aṭṭhaha a period of eight days atthajāta having some need or task aṭṭhaka a group of eight; a whole consisting of eight parts; a section consisting of groups of eights aṭṭhakā the eighth day after the full moon in the two winter months; the festival held at that time atthakāma wishing the benefit, profit (of, genitive); wishing (one) well atthakāmi wishing one well atthakāmin wishing one well atthakaraṇa (the place for) dealing with lawsuits; seat of judgment, courtroom atthakathā profitable talk, talk of the goal aṭṭhakavaggiya belonging to the Aṭṭhakavagga of the Suttanipāta; (Snp 766–975) atthakavi a didactic poet atthakkhāyi declaring the goal or what is beneficial atthakkhāyin declaring the goal or what is beneficial atthaṁ for the sake of; for the purpose of aṭṭhama (adjective) the eighth aṭṭhaṁsa octagonal, eight-faceted aṭṭhānavuti ninety eight aṭṭhaṅgamagga the eightfold path; the path with eight constituent parts aṭṭhaṅgasamannāgata characterized by eight parts (i.e. by observance of the first eight precepts); having eight constituent parts aṭṭhaṅgasumāgata well joined with the eight parts; well endowed with eight parts or with eight qualities aṭṭhaṅgasumāhita well joined or endowed with eight parts aṭṭhaṅgika having eight constituents, being made up of eight (intrinsic) parts aṭṭhaṅgula of eight finger-breadths; to the extent of eight finger-breadths aṭṭhaṅguli to the height or extent of eight finger-breadths aṭṭhaṅgupeta characterized by the eight parts or factors (i.e. by the observance of the first eight precepts) atthaññū knowing the means; knowing the goal; knowing the meaning atthantara taking the goal or meaning to heart; intent on the goal or meaning atthanusiṭṭhi administration of practical affairs or policy atthapada profitable saying; word of good sense aṭṭhapada a checkered board (for gambling or playing drafts, chess, etc.) aṭṭhapadaka cross weaving; a darn (in appearance like a checkered board) aṭṭhapadakatā arranged in an aṭṭhapada, plaited eightfold aṭṭhaparivatta consisting of eight items atthapaṭisambhidā analysis of the meaning atthapucchana questioning about the aim atthapurekkhāra aiming at the meaning, or at the benefit atthāra spreading, covering (the kaṭhina); performing the kaṭhina robe-making and ritual; displaying the kaṭhina robe atthāraka (one) who covers (the kaṭhina); who supervises the communal robe-making and ritual attharaṇa a covering, carpet; laying out aṭṭharasa 18 aṭṭhārasaka a group of eighteen aṭṭhārasama eighteenth attharati spreads out, spreads; spreads over, covers; lays out; especially kaṭhinam attharati, covers the kaṭhina, participates in the kaṭhina robe-making and ritual attharitabba null attharitvā null atthasaṁhita connected with the goal; useful, profitable; having meaning aṭṭhasataṁ one hundred eight aṭṭhasaṭṭhi sixty eight aṭṭhasaṭṭhiṁ null atthata covered; (of the kaṭhina) properly covered; (of the kaṭhina robe-making and ritual) properly carried out, properly performed atthaṭakaṭhina who has participated in the kaṭhina robe-making (and is therefore eligible for the five concessions) aṭṭhatālīsa forty eight aṭṭhatāḷīsa null aṭṭhatālīsaṁ forty eight aṭṭhatāḷīsaṁ null atthava profitable; significant aṭṭhavācika involving eight proclamations atthavādi speaking about the goal or what is beneficial atthavādin speaking about the goal or what is beneficial atthavasa reason; motive atthavasi pursuing an aim atthavasika pursuing an aim; pursuing the goal atthavasin pursuing an aim atthavat profitable; significant aṭṭhavatthuka connected with eight bases or grounds atthaveda knowledge or joy in the goal, or the practice aṭṭhavīsaṁ twenty eight atthāya for the benefit of; for the sake of (genitive) atthi is exists; is found aṭṭhi a bone aṭṭhicchida a breaker of bones aṭṭhicchinna one who breaks bones (?); one with broken bones (?) atthika desiring, wanting (instrumental); aiming at, having as purpose (instrumental); in need (of, instrumental) aṭṭhika a bone aṭṭhikaṅkāla a collection of bones; a skeleton aṭṭhikasaṅkhalikā a chain of bones; a skeleton aṭṭhikasañña the idea of bones, contemplation of the skeleton (as a meditation exercise) aṭṭhīkatvā making something one’s aim or object; paying attention atthikava wanting something; having a purpose atthikavāda (masculine) the doctrine that (merit, another world, etc.) exists atthikavat wanting something; having a purpose aṭṭhila a bone (or small pebble) used for massage aṭṭhimiñjā bone marrow atthin is exists; is found aṭṭhisañcaya a heap of bones aṭṭhisaṅkalikā a chain of bones, a skeleton aṭṭhisañña the idea of bones; contemplation of the bones atthisukha delighting in possessing something, in the existence of something atthitā existence; being; reality aṭṭhitaca skin and bones aṭṭhittaca skin and bones atthiya having a purpose or goal; useful, proper, fit atthopasaṁhita connected with the goal, or with what is beneficial atthu null atthūpaparikkhi investigating the meaning; inquiring into the significance atthūpaparikkhin investigating the meaning; inquiring into the significance atthūpeta expert in the meaning aṭṭita distressed; grieved; pained aṭṭiyamāna null aṭṭiyanta null aṭṭīyati (from aṭṭa) is distressed, pained, disgusted aṭṭiyitvā null attuddesa intended for oneself attuddesika intended for oneself attukkaṁsaka praising or exalting oneself attukkaṁsana self-praise attūpanāyika concerning oneself, applied to oneself, referring to oneself ātu father (?) ātuma the self; oneself ātuman the self; oneself ātura sick, ill; suffering, afflicted; wretc.hed āturīyati becomes sick; is pained avabhūta low, ignoble; deficient avabujjhati becomes aware of; perceives, knows; takes account of avacchidda cut, torn asunder; full of holes avadāniya illiberal, niggardly avadātaka white; or a white garment avagāha plunging into; going deep into avagamaka making known, expressing avagaṇḍakāraṁ stuffing the cheeks full; so as to make the cheeks swell avaghaṭṭana pushing, hitting āvāha bringing home (a bride); marriage (of a son) āvahana bringing, bringing near; causing āvāhana arranging a marriage āvahāpeyyum may they bring through; may they lead through avahāra taking away; theft avahāraka (one) who takes away; a thief avaharamāna null avaharaṇacitta with the intention of stealing; (an intention to steal(?)) avaharati takes down, puts down; takes away; steals avahari null avahāri null avahariṁsu null avaharituṁ null avaharitvā null avaharuṁ null avahāsi null avahaṭa (passive) taken away; stolen āvahati carries towards, carries along; brings; produces āvāhavivāhaka one who has a son or daughter to give in marriage avahīyati is left behind; is found wanting avahiyyati is left behind; is found wanting avajānanta null avajānāti despises; underrates avajāneyya null avajāni null avajānitabba null avajānitvā null avajāniya null avajāta of low or base birth; of lower character than one’s parents; an unworthy child avajhāyati broods, mourns avajīyati is conquered; is lost avajja what is blamable; imperfection, a fault āvajjati tilts, tips up (to pour out); tips over āvajjayati tilts, tips up (to pour out); tips over āvajjesi null āvajjeti tilts, tips up (to pour out); tips over avajjhāyati broods, mourns avakaḍḍhana removing avakaṅkhati desires, longs for avakassati removes; draws away; secedes avakkanti coming down (into); entering a womb, conception; appearance avakkāra leftovers or surplus from a meal avakkārapāti a dish for the left overs or surplus avakkhitta cast down, thrown down avakujja with the face downward, prone; upset avakujjapañña whose intellect is upside down, not retentive (like an upturned jar); who cannot learn or remember avalekhanakaṭṭha a scraping stick avalekhanapiṭhara a receptacle for scrapers avalekhati scrapes off avalekhitabba null avalikhati scrapes off avalitta smeared; plastered; smeared onto avalokayamāna null avalokayati looks at, regards; looks back avalokenta null avaloketi looks at, regards; looks back avaṁ downwards avamaññatha they slighted; they despised avamata despised āvamati swallows back; swallows what one has vomited or ejected avaṁsira with the head downwards; headlong, headfirst avañāta despised; underrated avaṅga a mark or circle drawn on the forehead or at the outer corner of the eye avaññāta despised; underrated āvāpaka a vessel, a container avapakāsati draws back, secedes; alienates oneself avapakassati draws back, secedes; alienates oneself avapatita fallen, fallen down avāpuraṇa a key avāpurati opens (a door) avāpurīyati null avarajjhati misses, neglects, fails (of); offends, commits a fault āvaraṇa covering, enclosing; shutting off; an obstruction, hindrance, prohibition; barricade, wall, dam āvaraṇaṁ karoti obstructs; prohibits āvaraṇīya (from āvaraṇa) belonging to or causing obstruction; obstructive avarapure to the west of the city āvarati covers; shuts; obstructs āvāretabba to obstruct; to shut off avaruddha opposed (to); hostile; rebellious āvasa null āvāsa living, sojourn; dwelling place, inhabited place; residence, especially a residence or dwelling for bhikkhus avasādayati makes sink down; disheartens, discourages avasādeti makes sink down; disheartens, discourages avasajjetvā throwing down (on); putting into; (or hanging on, suspending) āvāsakappa residence practice (the practice of several residences holding separate uposathas within the same boundary) āvāsamacchari selfish about dwellings āvāsamaccharin selfish about dwellings āvāsamacchariya selfish, meanness about dwellings āvasanta null āvāsapaligedhi greedy, selfish about dwellings āvāsapaligedhin greedy, selfish about dwellings āvāsaparamparā a succession of residences or dwellings āvāsaparamparāṁ to all the dwellings in succession avasarati goes down (to); moves away (to) avasari null avasariṁ null āvasat null avasaṭa gone away; withdrawn āvasatha hose, dwelling; lodging; a public rest-house; hostel āvasathacīvara a household robe (allowed to menstruating bhikkhunīs) āvasathagāra dwelling; rest-house āvasathapiṇḍa a meal at a public rest-house āvasati lives in, lives on; inhabits; dwells avasāyi determined; reaching the end avasāyin determined; reaching the end avasesa (neuter) the remainder, the rest; what is left āvasika (from āvasati) living in or on āvāsika (adjective) resident; in (regular or permanent) residence (usually of a bhikkhu) āvasiṁ null āvasiṁsu null avasissati is left over; is left as a remnant; remains avasissi null avasissiṁsu null āvasita living in or on avasiṭṭha left over, remaining; the rest (of) avassajī let loose; gave up; dismissed avassajiṁ let loose; gave up; dismissed avassajjetvā throwing down (on); putting into; (or hanging on, suspending) avassuta leaking; dripping, wet; foul, rotten; lustful, sexually excited āvaṭa covered, encompassed; obstructed; shut, shut off avaṭhiti firm position; steadiness, stability avatiṭṭhati takes one’s stand; remains standing; continues, lingers; falls down on or into āvatta turning; turning round; turning back; whirlpool, eddy āvaṭṭa turning; turning round; turning back; whirlpool, eddy āvaṭṭagāha seizure, possession by a whirlpool; (or: seized by a whirlpool) āvaṭṭaggāha seizure, possession by a whirlpool; (or: seized by a whirlpool) āvattamāna null āvaṭṭamāna null āvaṭṭanī turning, seducing; a seductress; a seductive sorcery āvattati (intrans.) turns, turns to; turns round, rolls; turns back, returns (especially to a layman’s life); winds, curls āvaṭṭati (intrans.) turns, turns to; turns round, rolls; turns back, returns (especially to a layman’s life); winds, curls āvatteti (transitive) turns, turns back; diverts, directs; converts; seduces āvaṭṭeti (transitive) turns, turns back; diverts, directs; converts; seduces avatthasi null avaṭṭhasi null avatthita standing firmly; placed; steady; continuing; lasting avaṭṭhita standing firmly; placed; steady; continuing; lasting avaṭṭhiti firm position; steadiness, stability āvattitvā null āvaṭṭitvā null avāyima not made by weaving; not woven avecca understanding, having penetrated aveccapasāda trust founded in knowledge, intelligent faith aveccapasanna having a trust founded in knowledge aveccappasāda trust founded in knowledge, intelligent faith aveccappasanna having a trust founded in knowledge avedhadamma not subject to trembling; unshakable avedhi not trembling avedhin not trembling avekkhanta null avekkhati looks down on; looks upon; considers avekkhi null avekkhiṁ null avekkhita watched avekkhitācāra who watches his behavior āvelā a garland worn on the head or ears, a chaplet āveni separately, apart; or not united, separate āveṇi separately, apart; or not united, separate āveṇibhāva separateness, distinction; schism āvenika not united, not mingled together (as is a plait of hair or the confluence of rivers); separate; specific, particular āveṇika not united, not mingled together (as is a plait of hair or the confluence of rivers); separate; specific, particular āveṇiṁ separately, apart; or not united, separate āveniya not united, not mingled together (as is a plait of hair or the confluence of rivers); separate; specific, particular āveṇiya not united, not mingled together (as is a plait of hair or the confluence of rivers); separate; specific, particular āvesana a workshop āvesanavitthaka a small bowl for keeping sewing utensils aveti understands; knows avhāna summoning, invitation; invocation; naming avhāyana summoning, invitation; invocation; name avhayati calls; summons; invokes; challenges; calls back avheti calls; summons; invokes; challenges; calls back avheyya null āvi before the eyes; openly, manifestly; in public āvī before the eyes; openly, manifestly; in public āvi-akāsi null āvibhāva the becoming visible; being made clear, evident; manifestation aviha (masculine plural) the name of one of the highest classes o/devas, the first class of suddhāvāsas āvijjhati swings, whirls round; makes revolve; stirs avikampi not shaking; intrepid, confident avikampin not shaking; intrepid, confident āvikaroti makes manifest; reveals, discloses; displays āvikata revealed, disclosed; made manifest āvikātabba null āvikatta one who makes manifest, who reveals, discloses āvikattar one who makes manifest, who reveals, discloses āvikātum null āvikatvā null āvila turbid, not clear; disturbed; polluted āviṁ before the eyes; openly, manifestly; in public āviñchana pulling; drawing towards; attracting āviñchi null āviñjana pulling; drawing towards; attracting āviñjanacchidda the pulling-hole (for pulling a door closed with one’s finger or a rope) āviñjanarajju the pulling rope, the rope for pulling the door or door-bolt closed āviñjati pulls; draws to oneself; attracts āviñji null avipakkanta not gone away, not dispersing avippakkanta not gone away, not dispersing avisāri not diffuse avisārin not diffuse āvisati approaches; enters; takes possession of āvisi null avivayha not marriageable; not suitable for marriage āvudha weapon; weaponry āvudhalakkhaṇa signs of omen on weapons āvunati strings; threads; inserts; impales āvuṇati strings; threads; inserts; impales āvuṇāti covers; shuts; obstructs āvuṇoti covers; shuts; obstructs āvusavāda the addressing as āvuso, the title āvuso āvuso respectful term of address, used by and to non-Buddhists, and by bhikkhus (and bhikkhunīs) to lay-followers, and to each other. Not used by or to the Buddha, and later used only by a senior bhikkhu to a junior āvusovāda the addressing as āvuso, the title āvuso āvuta (also āvutā and āvuṭa) covered, encompassed; obstructed; shut, shut off āvuṭa covered, encompassed; obstructed; shut, shut off āvuttha lived in, inhabited avyayaggamanasa with non-distracted mind; with mind focused avyayaggamānasa with non-distracted mind; with mind focused avyāyika imperishable; lasting aya (nominative ayo; accusative ayo, ayaṁ; instrumental ayasā, ayena; ablative ayasā, ayato) iron; metal āya coming in, arrival, source; inlet, entrance; income, revenue; profit āyācamāna null āyācana prayer, entreaty, vow āyācanta null āyācati prays; begs, implores; requests, asks (someone, accusative or genitive, for something, accusative or dative) āyāga offering, gift; sacrificial fee; the recipient of an offering ayaguḷa an iron ball ayakapāla an iron pot ayakaṭāha an iron pot or pan āyakosalla knowledge about, proficiency in, gain āyakusala knowledgeable about income or gain ayakūṭa (also ayokūṭa) iron hammer āyāma exertion; energy āyamati stretc.hes, stretc.hes out (trans. and intrans.); expands āyāmato in length āyāmena in length āyamukha a way of entrance; an inlet (for water); a source (of gain or revenue) āyānta null ayapatta an iron bowl ayapaṭṭa an iron strip or band ayas (nominative ayo; accusative ayo, ayaṁ; instrumental ayasā, ayena; ablative ayasā, ayato) iron; metal ayasa made of iron āyasa made of iron āyāsa exertion; trouble; weariness, distress āyasakka disgrace, ill-repute, dishonor āyasakya disgrace, ill-repute, dishonor āyasampanna provided with an inlet ayasiṅghātaka an iron bowl āyāsita trouble; d distressed āyasma long-lived, venerable; a venerable person (an honorific and respectful title of a bhikkhu) āyasmat long-lived, venerable; a venerable person (an honorific and respectful title of a bhikkhu) āyata stretc.hed, stretc.hed out; extended, long; long-drawn-out āyatagga extensive and best; or best for the future, the most excellent thing for the future; or best of sources āyataka long, prolonged; drawn-out (of sound) āyatakena suddenly, abruptly, of a sudden āyatana resting-place, abode; source; region, sphere, field, area āyatanaso as the fields of perception āyatapamha having long eyelashes āyatapaṇhi having projecting heels (one of the 32 characteristics of a mahāpurisa) āyatapaṇhin having projecting heels (one of the 32 characteristics of a mahāpurisa) ayati goes; goes towards; reaches, obtains; reaches (a state); is involved (in) āyati future; next āyāti comes, comes near, approaches; goes to; reaches (a state or condition) āyatijātijarāmaraṇiya leading to birth, old age and death in the future āyatika next; future āyatiṁ in the future, for the future ayiraka master; lord āyoga binding; a bandage ayoguḷa an iron ball ayokapāla an iron pot ayokaṭāha an iron pot or pan ayokhīla an iron stake, an iron peg ayokūṭa iron hammer ayopatta an iron bowl ayopaṭṭa an iron strip or band ayosiṅghātaka an iron bowl āyu life; vital power; duration of life, life-time; long life āyuda giving life āyudāyi giving life āyudāyin giving life āyudhalakkhaṇa sings of omen on weapons āyūha thrusting; striving; exertion āyuhati thrusts forward, pushes forward (intrans.); struggles, strains, exerts oneself (especially in water); pursues, works at āyūhati thrusts forward, pushes forward (intrans.); struggles, strains, exerts oneself (especially in water); pursues, works at āyusaṅkhāra constituent of life, impetus for life, vital principle āyussa giving long life āyutta engaged in, intent upon, devoted to (+ locative or dative) āyuva long lived āyuvat long lived ayya (masculine) a lord, master; a worthy person; the venerable sir, (feminine) a mistress; a noble lady; the venerable lady ayyaka a grandfather; an ancestor ayyakā a grandmother ayyaputta a young master, the son of the house; a (young) lord; a husband ayyaputtaka a young lord, a husband ayyavosāṭitaka (food) offered to the ancestors ayyika a grandfather; an ancestor ayyikā a grandmother babbaja the fragrant root of the Andropogon Muricatus babbu a cat babbuka a cat badālatā a creeper of sweet taste badara jujube fruit badaramissa mixed with jujube badarī the jujube tree baddha bound; trapped; fastened; combined; put together baddhañjalika keeping the hands reverently extended baddharāva the cry of the trapped or caught baddhavera contracted enmity. (adjective), having such enmity bādhā hindrance; prevention bādhaka preventing; harassing; obstructing bādhakatta the fact of being obstructive bādhana hindrance; affliction; snaring; catching bādhati hinders; obstructs; afflicts; ensnares bādhenta oppressing; afflicting bādhesi oppressed; afflicted; harassed; ensnared; prevented bādheti oppresses; afflicts; harasses; ensnares; prevents bādhetvā having harassed; having ensnared bādhi hindered; obstructed; afflicted; ensnared badhira deaf; a person who is deaf bādhita oppressed; afflicted; harassed; ensnared; prevented bādhitvā having hindered; having obstructed; having afflicted; having ensnared bāhā the arm; a post; a handle bāhābala power of the arm, i.e. manual labor bahala thick; dense bahalatta thickness bāhesi kept away; warded off; removed bāheti keeps away; wards off; removes bāhetvā having kept away; having warded off; having removed bahi outer; external; outside bahiddhā outside; outer bahigata gone outside bahijana outside people bahinagara the outer city or outside the city bahinikkhamana going out bāhira external; outer; foreign. (neuter), outside bāhiraka of another faith; outsider bāhirakapabbajjā the ascetic life other than that of Buddhist monks bāhiratta eternality bāhita kept away; warded off; removed bahu much; many; plenty; abundant. (plural) many persons bāhu the arm bahualīkamma continuous practice; zealous exercise bahubbīhi the Relative Compound bahubhaṇda having an abundance of goods bahubhāṇī one who speaks much bahubhāva abundance bahudhā in many ways bahudhana with many riches bahujāgara very wakeful bahujana a mass of people bāhujañña belonging to the public bahuka many bahukāra of great service; very useful bahukaraṇīya having much to do; busy bahukicca having much to do; busy bahukkhattuṁ many times bahula abundant; frequent bahulaṁ mostly; frequently bahulatā abundance bahulatta abundance bāhulika living in abundance bahulīkamma continuous practice; zealous exercise bahulīkāra continuous practice; zealous exercise bahulīkaraṇa continuous practice; zealous exercise bahulīkari took up seriously; increased bahulīkaroti takes up seriously; increases bahulīkata took up seriously; increased. (adjective), practiced frequently bāhulla abundance; luxurious living bāhullaya abundance; luxurious living bahullya abundance; luxurious living bahumāna respect; esteem; veneration bahumānana respect; esteem; veneration bahumānita much esteemed bahumata much esteemed; accepted by many bahūpakāra very helpful bahuppada many-footed; giving much bāhusacca great learning bahuso mostly; frequently; repeatedly bahussuta very learned bahutara much; more bahutta manifoldness; multiplicity bahuvacana the plural number bahuvidha manifold; multiform bajjhati is bound or captivated; is caught (in a trap etc.) baka a crane; heron bakkhituṁ to eat; to feed upon bala strength; power; force; an army; military force bāla young in years; ignorant; foolish. (masculine) a child; a fool bālā a girl balada strength-giving; bestowal of power baladāna bestowal of power balākā a brown crane bālaka a child balakāya an army balākayoni a species of crane balakkāra violence; application of force balakoṭṭhaka a stronghold; fortress balamattā a little strength balappatta come into power; grown strong bālatā foolishness balattha a soldier; member of an army balaṭṭha a soldier; member of an army balavāhana the soldiers and vehicles balavant powerful bāḷha strong; much; excessive bāḷhaṁ strongly; excessively; very much bali religious offering; revenue; tax balī powerful; strong baliharaṇa collecting of taxes balikā a girl balikamma an oblation balipaṭiggāhaka receiving oblations or revenues balipuṭṭha a crow bālisika a fisherman balivadda an ox bālya childhood; folly bāṇa an arrow bāṇadhi a quiver bandha bound; fetter; attachment; imprisonment bandhana bound; fetter; attachment; imprisonment; binding; bondage; something to bind with bandhanāgāra a prison bandhanāgārika a prisoner; prison-keeper bandhanīya should be combined; should be united bandhanta combining; capturing bandhāpesi caused to be bound or fettered bandhāpeti causes to be bound or fettered bandhāpita caused to be bound or fettered bandhati binds; combines; unites; ties on; captures; composes bandhava kinsman; relative; relation bandhi combined; united bandhitabba should be combined; should be united bandhituṁ to combine; to unite; to capture bandhitvā having combined; having united bandhiya having combined; having united bandhu kinsman; relative; relation bandhujīvaka the China-rose plant bandhumant having relatives; rich in kinsmen baraṇaseyyaka made in or coming from Benares bārāṇasī the city of Benares bārāṇasīṇaseyyaka made in or coming from Benares bārasa twelve barihisa Kusa-grass battiṁsati thirty-two bavhābādha full of sickness bāvīsati twenty-two beluva the tree Aegle Marmelos beluvalaṭṭhi a young Marmelos tree beluvapakka a ripe fruit of Marmelos beluvasalāṭuka unripe fruit of Marmelos bhā the light; splendor bhabba able; capable; fit for bhabbatā ability; fitness bhacca a servant; a dependent. (adjective), to be nourished or brought up bhadanta venerable; reverend. (masculine) a venerable person bhadda august; auspicious; lucky; good bhaddā a well-behaved woman bhaddaghaṭa a vessel used in drawing lots in a lottery bhaddaka a lucky or good thing. (adjective), of good quality; lucky bhaddakaccānā another name for Rāhula’s mother, Yasodharā bhaddakumbha a full pitcher, (accepted as auspicious) bhaddamukha having a hand-some face; complementary address bhaddanta venerable; reverend. (m; adj.), venerable person bhaddapadā name of a constellation bhaddapīṭha a rattan chair bhaddāru a sort of pine, the deodar tree bhaddayuga the best pair bhaddikā a well-behaved woman bhadra august; auspicious; lucky; good bhaga luck; fortune; the female organ bhāga a portion; part; share; faction bhāgadheya fortune; fate bhāgadheyya fortune; fate bhagandalā the fistula bhāgaso in parts; by portions bhagavant fortunate. (masculine), the Buddha bhāgavant sharing in; partaking of bhagga broken; destroyed bhāgī sharing in; partaking of. (masculine) sharer; share-holder bhāgineyya sister’s son; nephew bhāgineyyā sister’s daughter; niece bhaginī sister bhāgīrathī the Ganges bhāgiya (in compounds) connected with; conducive to bhāgya good luck; fortune bhājaka one who divides or distribution bhajamāna associating with; keeping company bhajana association with bhājana association with bhājanavikati various kinds of dishes or vessels bhajati associates with; keeps company bhājenta dividing; distributing bhājesi divided; distributed bhājetabba should be divided; should be distributed bhājetar one who divides or distribution bhājeti divides; distributes bhājetvā having divided; having distributed bhaji associated with; kept company bhajita associated with; kept company bhājita divided; distributed bhajitabba should be associated bhajitvā having associated with; having kept company bhājīyati is divided or distributed bhajjamāna roasting; toasting bhajjati roasts; toasts bhajji roasted; toasted bhajjita roasted; toasted bhajjitvā having roasted; having toasted bhajjīyati is roasted bhakhituṁ to eat; to feed upon bhakkha fit to be eaten; eatable. (neuter), food; prey. (in compounds), feeding on bhakkhaka one who eats bhakkhana eating bhakkhati eats; feeds upon bhakkheti see bhakkhati, eats; feeds upon bhakkhi ate; fed upon bhakkhita eaten; fed upon bhākuṭika knitting the brows; frowning bhallātaka the marking-nut tree bhama a revolving thing; a whirl pool; swerving bhamakāra a turner bhamanta revolving; whirling about; roaming bhamara a wasp bhamarikā a humming top bhamati revolves; whirls about; roams bhami revolved; whirled about; roamed bhamitvā having revolved; having whirled about; having roamed bhamu the eyebrow bhamukā the eyebrow bhāṇaka a reciter of the Scriptures bhaṇanta speaking; telling; preaching bhaṇata spoke; told; preached bhaṇati speaks; tells; preaches bhāṇavāra a section of the scriptures, containing 8, 000 letters bhaṇḍa good; wares; implements; articles bhaṇḍāgāra a storehouse or treasury bhaṇḍāgārika a store keeper or treasurer bhaṇḍaka good; wares; implements; articles bhaṇḍana a quarrel; a dispute bhaṇḍati quarrels bhaṇḍesi quarreled bhaṇḍeti quarrel bhaṇḍetvā having quarreled bhaṇḍi quarreled bhaṇḍikā a bundle or parcel bhaṇḍu a person who is shaven bhaṇḍukamma shaving bhaṇe a term often used for addressing inferiors bhaṅga breaking up; dissolution. (neuter), the humped cloth bhaṅgakkhaṇa the moment of dissolution bhaṅgānupassanā insight into disruption bhaṇi spoke; told; preached bhāṇī speaking; reciting bhaṇita spoken; told; preached. (neuter) that which was spoken bhaṇitabba shooed be spoken; should be told bhaṇituṁ to speak; to tell; to preach bhaṇitvā having spoken; having told bhañjaka one who breaks or spoils bhañjamāna breaking; destroying bhañjana breakage; destruction bhañjanaka breaking; destroying bhañjanta breaking; destroying bhañjati breaks; destroys bhañji broke; destroyed bhañjita broken; destroyed bhañjitvā having broken; having destroyed bhanta swaying; swerving; revolved; whirled about; roamed bhantatta confusion; turmoil bhante Reverend Sir; O lord bhānu light; bhānumantu luminous; (masculine), the sun bhara (in compounds), supporting. mātāpettibhara = one who supports his parents bhāra a weight; load; burden; charge; task; an affair bhārahāra burden-bearer; load-carrier bhāramocana deliverance of a burden bharaṇa maintenance; bearing bhāranikkhepana the laying down of a burden or charge bharati bears; supports; maintains bhāravāhī bearing the burden; one who carries an office bhari bear; supports; maintains bhārika loaded; heavy; full of bharita filled with; full of; maintained bharitvā having born; having supported bhariyā the wife bhāriya weighty; grave; serious bhāsā language; dialect bhāsana speech; saying; talk bhāsanta saying; speaking; shining bhāsantara different language bhāsati says; speaks; shines bhāsi said; spoke; shone bhāsī one who says or speaks bhāsita said; spoken; shone. (neuter), saying bhāsitabba should be said; should be spoken; should be shone bhāsitar one who says or speaks bhāsitvā having said; having spoken; having shone bhasma ashes bhasmacchanna covered with ashes bhassa useless talk bhassamāna falling down bhassanta falling down bhassara bright; shining; resplendent bhassārāmatā attachment to useless talk bhassati falls down; drops; descends bhassi fell down; dropped bhassitvā having fell down bhastā the bellows; a leather bag bhāsura bright; shining bhata a servant bhaṭa a soldier; a constable; a hireling bhataka a hired servant bhātar a brother bhaṭasenā an infantry bhati wages; fee bhāti shines bhātika a brother bhatta boiled rice; food; meal bhatta-vissagga-karaṇatthāya for taking meals bhattagāma a village giving tribute or service bhattagga a refectory bhattakāraka a cook bhattakicca taking of meals bhattakilamatha drowsiness after a meal bhattapuṭa a parcel of food bhattar a husband; one who support or brings up bhattasammada drowsiness after a meal bhattavelā mealtime bhattavetana food and fees bhattavissagga serving a meal bhaṭṭha roasted; fallen down; dropped bhatti devotion; belief; attachment bhattika devoted; believing in bhattimant devoted; believing in bhava the state of existence bhāva condition; nature; becoming bhavābhava this or that life bhavacakka the wheel of rebirth bhavagga the highest point of existence or of the universe bhavamāna becoming; existing bhavana becoming; a dwelling place bhāvanā increase; development by means of thought; meditation bhāvanāmaya accomplished by meditation bhāvanānuyoga application to meditation bhāvanāvidhāna arrangement or process of meditation bhavanetti craving for rebirth bhavaṅga the sub- consciousness bhāvanīya to be cultivated; to be respected bhavanta prosperous; a polite word often used in the place of “you”. bhavantaga gone to the end of existence bhavantara another existence bhavasaṁyojana fetter of rebirth bhavataṇhā craving for rebirth bhavati becomes; to be; exists bhāvayamāna increasing; cultivating; developing bhāventa increasing; cultivating; developing bhavesanā longing for rebirth bhāvesi increased; cultivated; developed bhāvetabba should be cultivated bhāveti increases; cultivates; develops bhāvetuṁ to increase; to cultivate; to develop bhāvetvā having increased; having cultivated; having developed bhavi became; existed bhāvī going to be; inevitable bhāvita increased; cultivated; developed bhavitabba should be existed bhāvitatta well-trained; self-composed bhavituṁ to become; to exist bhavitvā having existed bhavogha the flood of rebirth bhaya fear; fright bhaya-bherava appalling and terrible bhayadassāvī realizing the danger bhayadassī realizing the danger bhayānaka frightful; horrible bhayaṅkara dreadful; horrible bhāyanta fearing bhāyāpesi caused to frighten bhāyāpeti causes to frighten bhāyāpetvā having caused to frighten bhāyāpita caused to frighten bhāyati is afraid; fears bhayāvaha frightful; horrible bhāyi feared bhāyitabba should be afraid bhāyitvā having feared bheda breach; disunion; dissension bhedaka one who breaks or causes disunion bhedakara bringing division or disunion bhedana breach; division; disunion bhedanadhamma perishable bhedanaka fit to be broken bhedesi caused to break, divide or disunite bhedeti causes to break, divide or disunite bhedetvā having caused to break, divide or disunite bhedita caused to break, divide or disunite bhejja brittle; breakable. (neuter), breaking or cutting off bheka a frog bheṇḍivāla a kind of missile bheṇḍu a ball for playing; a ball-shaped top or cupola bheṇḍuka a ball for playing; a ball-shaped top or cupola bheraṇḍa a jackal bheraṇḍaka the cry of a jackal bherava frightful bheri a drum bhericāraṇa proclamation through sounding a drum bherisadda sound of a drum bheritala the surface of a drum bherivādaka a drummer bherivādana sounding of a drum bhesajja medicine bhesajjakapāla medicine bowl bhesajjamattā a dose of medicine bhettar one who breaks bhijjadhamma brittle; falling into ruin bhijjamāna breaking; destroying bhijjana breaking itself bhijjanadhamma brittle; falling into ruin bhijjati is broken or destroyed bhijji broke; destroyed bhijjitvā having broken; having destroyed bhikkhā alms; food bhikkhācāra going about for alms bhikkhācariyā going about for alms bhikkhāhāra food received by a mendicant bhikkhaka a beggar; mendicant bhikkhamāna begging alms; asking for bhikkhana begging bhikkhanta begging alms; asking for bhikkhati begs alms; asks for bhikkhi begged alms; asked for bhikkhitvā having begged alms; having asked for bhikkhu a Buddhist monk bhikkhubhāva monkshood bhikkhuṇī a Buddhist nun bhikkhusaṅgha congregation of monks bhīma dreadful; horrible bhiṁsana horrible; dreadful; awe-inspiring bhiṁsanaka horrible; dreadful; awe-inspiring bhindana breaking up bhindanta breaking; splitting; severing bhindati breaks; splits; severs bhindi broke; split; severed bhindita broken; split; severed bhindituṁ to break; to split; to sever bhinditvā having broken; having split; having severed bhiṅka a young elephant bhiṅkāra a water-jug bhinna broken; destroyed bhinnabhāva state of being broken; diversity bhinnamariyāda gone beyond the limits bhinnapaṭa a torn clothe bhinnasīla one who has broken some precepts bhinnatta state of being broken; diversity bhinnāva shipwrecked bhiṅsana horrible; dreadful; awe-inspiring bhiṅsanaka horrible; dreadful; awe-inspiring bhīru timid; fearful; cowardly bhīruka timid; fearful; cowardly bhīruttāna refuge for the fearful bhisa the root of lotus plant bhisakka a physician bhisamuḷāla lotus bulb and roots bhīsana dreadful; horrible bhisapuppha lotus flower bhisi cushion; a pad; a bolster bhīta frightened bhīti fear bhitti a wall bhittipāda the foot or foundation of a wall bhīyoso mattāya still more bhiyyo exceedingly; more; in a higher degree; repeatedly bhiyyoso exceedingly; more; in a higher degree; repeatedly bhiyyoso mattāya exceedingly; more than one’s ability bho (a familiar term of address), my dear; friend bhoga possession; wealth; enjoyment; the coil of a snake bhogahetu on account of wealth bhogakkhandha a mass of wealth bhogāma a tributary village bhogamada pride of wealth bhogavant wealthy bhogga fit to be enjoyed or possessed., bhogī (in compounds), enjoying; partaking in bhojaka one who feeds; a collector of revenues bhojana food; meal bhojaniya fit to be eaten. (neuter), soft food bhojāpesi feed or served at meal bhojāpeti feeds or serves at meal bhojāpetvā having fed or served at meal bhojāpita fed or served at meal bhojayamāna feeding bhojenta feeding bhojesi fed bhojeti feeds bhojetuṁ to feed bhojetvā having fed bhojī feeding on bhojita fed bhojja an edible thing. (adjective), fit to be eaten bhoti Dear Madam bhottabba see bhojja, an edible thing. (adjective), fit to be eaten bhottuṁ to eat; to enjoy bhovādī a Brahman bhū the earth bhuja the hand. (adjective), crooked; bending bhujaga a snake bhujaṅga a snake bhujaṅgama a snake bhujapatta the Bhurja tree, a kind of willow bhujissa a freeman bhukkāra barking (of a dog) bhukkaraṇa barking (of a dog) bhūma (in compounds), having floors or stories bhūmaka (in compounds), having floors or stories bhūmi ground; earth; region; stage; plane bhūmibhāga a piece of land bhūmigata situated on the ground or stored away in the ground bhūmikampā an earthquake bhūmippadesa a piece of land bhūmisenāpati lord of country and army bhūmitala ground surface bhumma terrestrial. (in compounds), having stages or stories bhummantara different stages or planes bhummaṭṭha situated on the earth bhummattharaṇa a ground covering; carpet bhuñjaka one who eats or enjoys bhuñjamāna eating; enjoying bhuñjana eating bhuñjanakāla meal-time bhuñjanta eating; enjoying bhuñjati eats; enjoys bhuñji ate; enjoyed bhuñjitabba eating; enjoying bhuñjitar one who eats or enjoys bhuñjituṁ to eat; to enjoy bhuñjitvā having eaten; having enjoyed bhuñjiya having eaten; having enjoyed bhuṅkāra barking (of a dog) bhuṅkaraṇa barking bhuṅkari barked bhuṅkaritvā having barked bhuṅkaronta barking bhuṅkaroti barks bhuṅkata barked bhuṅkatvā having barked bhūri wisdom. (adjective), extensive; abundant bhūrimedha of extensive wisdom bhūripañña of extensive wisdom bhusa chaff; husks (of corn). (adjective), much; abundant bhūsā an ornament; decoration bhusaṁ exceedingly; frequently bhūsana an ornament; decoration bhūsāpesi caused to adorn or decorate bhūsāpeti causes to adorn or decorate bhūsāpetvā having caused to adorn or decorate bhūsāpita caused to adorn or decorate bhūsenta adorning; decorating; beautifying bhūsesi adorned; decorated; beautified bhūseti adorns; decorates; beautifies bhūsetvā having adorned; having decorated; having beautified bhūsita adorned; decorated; beautified bhussamāna barking bhussanta barking bhussati barks bhussi barked bhussitvā having barked bhūta become; existed bhūtagāha possession by a demon bhūtagāma vegetation bhūtakāla time to reveal one’s true nature bhūtakāya the body, which is produced by elements bhūtapati lord of demons bhūtapubbaṁ formerly bhūtatta the fact of having become bhūtavādī truthful bhūtavejja an exorcist bhūtavijjā exorcism bhūtika composed of elements bhutta eaten; enjoyed bhuttāvī one who has eaten; enjoyed bhutvā having eaten; having enjoyed bhūtvā having existed bībhacca awful; horrible bidala a split pea or bamboo; a lath bīja seed; germ; generating element bījabīja plants propagated by seeds bījagāma seed-kingdom bījajāta species of seed bījakosa the capsule or seed vessel of flowers; the scrotum bila a den; a hole; a portion biḷālī a she cat; a kind of bulbous plant bilaṅga vinegar bilaṅgathālikā a kind of torture biḷāra a cat biḷārabhastā the bellows bilaso in portions or heaps billa the marmelos tree bimba an image; figure; the disk (of the sun or moon) bimbā name of the Prince Siddhartha's wife bimbī the creeper brayonia grandis, which produces red oval fruits bimbikā the creeper brayonia grandis, which produces red oval fruits bindu a drop; a dot; a trifle bindumatta as much as a drop bindumattaṁ only a drop bīraṇa the grass andropogon muricatus, which produces fragrant roots bīraṇatthambha a bush of the above said grass bodha enlightenment; knowledge bodhana enlightenment; knowledge bodhaneyya capable of being enlightened bodhanīya capable of being enlightened bodhenta awakening bodhesi awakened; enlightened bodhetar one who awakens or enlightens bodheti awakens; enlightens bodhetvā having awakened; having enlightened bodhi supreme knowledge; the tree of wisdom bodhimaha offerings to a Bo-tree bodhimaṇḍa the ground under the Bo-tree, where the Buddha sat at the time of His enlightenment bodhimūla the foot of the Bo-tree bodhiṅgaṇa the courtyard in which a Bo-tree stands bodhipādapa the Bo-tree; the Ficus Religiosia bodhipakkhika belonging to enlightenment bodhipakkhiya belonging to enlightenment bodhipūjā offerings to a Bo-tree bodhirukkha the Bo-tree; the Ficus Religiosia bodhita awakened; enlightened bojjhaṅga a factor of knowledge or wisdom bondi the body brahanta vast; lofty; gigantic; immense. (in compounds it takes the form brahā, just like mahā from mahanta) brahma the Brahma; the Creator brahmabandhu a relative of the brahma, i.e. a brahman brahmabhūta most excellent brahmacārī leading a chaste life brahmacariyā religious life; complete chastity brahmadaṇḍa a (kind of) punishment by stopping all conversation and communication with one brahmadeyya a royal gift brahmaghosa having a sound similar to that of Brahma brahmajacca belonging to the brahman caste brahmakāyika belonging to the company of Brahmas brahmaloka the brahma world brahmalokūpaga taking birth in the Brahma-world brāhmaṇa a man of the Brahman caste brahmaṇakaññā Brahman maiden brāhmaṇavācanaka recitation of Vedas by brahmans brāhmaṇavāṭaka a place where brahmans assemble brahmañña brahmanhood; pure life brahmaññatā brahmanhood; pure life brahmappatta arrived at the highest state brahmavihāra divine state of mind; a name collectively given to mettā, karuṇā, muditā, and upekkhā brahmavimāna mansion of a brahma god bravitu let him say brūhana development; increment brūhenta increasing; developing brūhesi increased; developed brūhetar one who increase brūheti increases; develops brūhetvā having increased; having developed brūhita increased; developed brūti says; speaks bruvanta saying; speaking bruvitvā having said; having spoken bubbula a bubble bubbulaka a bubble bubhukkhati wishes to eat. (bhuj + kha; bhu is doubled, the first bh is changed to b and j to k) bubhukkhi wished to eat bubhukkhita wished to eat buddha one who has attained enlightenment; the Enlightened One buḍḍha aged; old buddhabala the force of a Buddha buddhabhāva the Buddhahood buddhabhūmi the ground of Buddhahood buddhabhūta become enlightened buddhacakkhu the faculty of complete intuition buddhaguṇa virtues of a Buddha buddhakāla the time when a Buddha appears buddhakārakadhamma the practices bringing about Buddhahood buddhakkhetta the sphere where a Buddha’s power exists buddhakolāhala the announcement about coming of a Buddha buddhālambana having its foundation in the Buddha buddhalīḷhā grace of a Buddha buddhamāmaka devoted or attached to the Buddha buddhañāṇa the boundless knowledge buddhaṅkura one who is destined to be a Buddha buddhantara the interval between the appearance of one Buddha and next buddhānubhāva the majestic power of the Buddha buddhānussati mindfulness upon the Buddha’s virtues buddhaputta a disciple of a Buddha buddhārammaṇa having its foundation in the Buddha buddharaṁsi rays from the person of the Buddha buddharasmi rays from the person of the Buddha buddhasāsana the teaching of the Buddha buḍḍhatara older buddhatta the state of a Buddha buddhavacana the teaching of the Buddha buddhaveneyya to be converted by a Buddha buddhavisaya the scope of a Buddha buddhi a wisdom; intelligence buddhimant wise; intelligent buddhisampanna wise; intelligent buddhopaṭṭhāka attending the Buddha buddhoppāda the age in which a Buddha is born budha a wise man; the planet mercury budhavāra Wednesday bujjhamāna perceiving bujjhana awakening; attaining knowledge bujjhanaka intelligent; prudent bujjhanta knowing; understanding bujjhati knows; understands; perceives; is awake bujjhi knew; understood; perceived bujjhitar one who awakes or becomes enlightened bujjhitvā having known; having understood; having perceived byaggha a tiger byāma a fathom byāmappabhā the halo extending around the Buddha byañjana a syllable; a consonant; a sign or mark; curry byāpāda malevolence byūha an array of troops; a mass or collection ca and, both, also; moreover, as well as caccara a courtyard; a cross road; a thoroughfare cāga leaving, abandoning; getting rid of cāgādiṭṭhāna (neuter) fixing the mind on abandoning, giving up and/or on giving; resolution for liberality and/or for abandoning cāgānussati the calling to mind one’s liberality cāgava(t) liberal, generous cajamāna null cajati leaves, abandon, gets rid of, frees oneself from cajitvā null cajitvāna null cakka a wheel of a cart or carriage; the pattern of a wheel on the soles of the feet (one of the marks of a mahāpurisa) cakkabheda breaking the wheels of authority; destroying the unity or sway of the religion cakkacchinna churned up by the wheels; dried up, lessened because of the wheels cakkalī a (circular) pad (?) cakkalika (a circular) pad? cakkānuvattaka (one) who turns the wheel afterwards, who keeps the wheels rolling cakkaratana the “wheel treasure” of the cakkavatti(n) cakkasamārūḷha having mounted their vehicles (in an emergency) cakkavaṭṭaka a wheeled device for raising water from a well, a noria cakkavattī(n) a universal monarch; wheel turning emperor cakkayuga a pair of wheels cakkhāyatana the sense-organ that is the eye; the sphere of visual perception cakkhu the eye; the organ of sight; the faculty of seeing cakkhubhūta like an eye, seeing, full of insight, possessing vision cakkhuda giving sight; giving visions cakkhudada giving sight; giving visions cakkhudhātu the constituent element that is the eye (as sense organ) cakkhukaraṇa producing sight or insight cakkhuma(t) possessing eyes, gifted with sight; (one) who has eyes, who can see; one who has the gift of sight cakkhundriya null cakkhūndriya, the sense faculty that is the eye cakkhupatha the range or reach of sight cakkhussa pleasing to the eyes cakkhuviññāṇa cognizance by the sense-organ that is the eye cakkhuviññeyya cognizable by the sense organ that is the eye cala moving, trembling; unsteady, unstable; transient calaka null calati is moved; shakes, quivers; is agitated or disturbed calayati null calesi null cālesi null caleti causes to move, shakes calita (adjective) moving, shaking; unstable; agitated, disturbed; shaken; stirred cālita null cāmara the bushy tail of the yak used as a fan or fly-whisk, a chowry cāmarachattagāhakā those who hold the chowry and parasol camaravījanī a fan or fly-whisk made from a yak’s tail, a chowry camma skin (human or animal; either skin generally, or, in contradiction to chavi, the inner layer of skin, the hypoderma cammakāra a leather worker; a shoe maker cammakhaṇḍa a piece of leather used for sitting upon cammapaṭṭa a flat leather thong? cammavedhaviddha struck with a piercing of the skin cammavinaddha bound or covered with skin; a drum cammayodhi(n) a soldier who wears leather armor or is armed with a shield campeyyaka connected with the town of campā canda the moon caṇḍa of quick or violent temper; impetuous; fierce, intemperate; savage, enraged candābhā radiance of the moon; moonshine candaggāha eclipse of the moon caṇḍāla a man of one of the outcast communities, an outcast caṇḍālavaṁsa a bamboo pole used in an acrobatic feat caṇḍālavaṁsadhovana a name of an acrobatic feat caṇḍālavaṁsika a (bamboo) acrobat caṇḍālī a caṇḍāla woman candamaṇḍala the disc of the moon candana sandalwood (the tree, wood, or perfume prepared from the wood) candanacuṇṇa powdered candana; candana powder candanagaṇṭhi a piece of sandalwood candanaghaṭikā a stick of sandalwood candanamaṇḍita decorated with sandalwood candanamaṇḍitasāragandhika excellent scent because of sandalwood decoration candanasāra the essence of sandalwood; the best sandalwood; the pith of sandalwood candani a pool candanikā a stagnant pool; a cesspit; a sewer candaniyā a stagnant pool; a cesspit; a sewer candanokkhita sprinkled or anointed with candana candanussada abundantly anointed with candana candarābhā null candī belonging to the moon (?) caṇḍīkata angered, enraged; in a temper candimā the moon; the moon deva candima(s) the moon; the moon deva candimasuriyā the sun and the moon; the devas of the sun and moon candimasūriyā null caṅgavāra a strainer, a sieve caṅkama the act of walking, walking about, walking up and down caṅkama(t) null caṅkamamāna null caṅkamanasālā a hall or enclosure for walking about in caṅkamanta null caṅkamati walks, walks about, walks up and down caṅkami null caṅkamitabba null caṅkamitvā null cāpa a bow capala unsteady, inconstant; thoughtless, inconsiderate, ill-mannered; frivolous cāpalasuṇa a kind of (garlic or) onion; (a spring onion(?)) cāpalla unsteadiness; thoughtlessness; indulgence in show and ornament cāpalya null capucapukārakaṁ making the sound “capucapu” cara a spy; a secret agent; a scout cāra going, going about; grazing; going about (one’s life), behavior cara(t) null carahi then at that moment; in that case; yet; (as emphatic particle) then; commonly used as emphatic particle (preceded by atha) in interrogative clauses, often expressing exasperation or indignation: who then … ? whatever in that case … ? why on earth … ? especially in the second clause of a conditional sentence: if …, then who in that case … ? if …, then how on earth … ? caraka one who goes about or roams; a wandering ascetic caramāna null caraṇa (m. neuter) a foot caraṇasampanna perfect in good conduct caraṇava(t) of good conduct caraṇavipanna whose behavior is wrong; failing in good conduct cāraṇika a painted cloth (carried round by wandering actors); a play performed by wandering actors(?) caranta null carapurā (according to commentary) a retinue in front and behind cari null cāri going about; the possibility of going about; accessibility; (the possibility of) grazing cāri(ṁ) null cārikā a journey; a going about; a tour cariṁ null carimaka last, ultimate, final carimha null cariṁsu null carita (adjective) habitually practiced; observed; performed carita(r) one who practices; observes caritabba null caritaka action, behavior; (good) conduct cāritta going about, walking around cārittakilamatha weariness from walking around (for alms) caritvā null caritvāna null cariya null cariyā going about, motion; action, performance; deed; behavior, conduct; especially good conduct cārudassana lovely to look at; beautiful cāṭi a large vessel or jar cāṭī null catta (adjective) left, abandoned; got rid of; renounced, given up; given away cattālīsa(ṁ) null cattālīsaka (concerning) a group of 40 cattāḷīsaka null cattārīsa(ṁ) forty cattārīsachabbassasatāyukā having a lifespan of 640 years cattārisaka null cattārīsavassasahassāyuka having a lifespan of 40, 000 years cattārīsavassāyuka having a lifespan of 40 years cattārivassa-sahassāyuka having a lifespan of 4, 000 years catu(b)bhāga the fourth part; a quarter catu(g)guṇa fourfold; four times; folded four times; of four thicknesses catu(k)kuṇḍika on one’s hands and knees, on all fours catu(k)kuṭika consisting of four houses catu(m)mahāpatha a crossing of high-roads, a main crossroads catu(m)mūlaka having four roots; having four bases catu(n)navuti ninety four catu(r) four. Nominative/accusative masculine cattaro, caturo; neuter cattari; feminine catasso (and caturo); instrumental masculine, neuter catūhi, catuhi (and catubbhi); feminine catūhi, catuhi; genitive/dative masculine, neuter catunnaṁ; feminine catunnaṁ; locative masculine/neuter/feminine catūsu, catusu catubbhidaṁ in four ways; in a fourfold ways catubbhidena null catubbhidha fourfold; of four kinds catucakka (adjective) (that) which has four postures, or four limbs, or four attainments (i.e. the body); (neuter) the four attainments or means catucattālīsa(ṁ) forty four catucattāḷīsa(ṁ) forty four catucattārīsa(ṁ) forty four catuddasa fourteen cātuddasa (neuter) the 14th day (of a lunar fortnight) cātuddasī the 14th day (night) of a fortnight cātuddasika on the 14th day of a lunar fortnight cātuddasīṁ on the fourteenth day; for the fourteenth day cātuddīpa belonging to the four continents; extending over the four continents; having control over the four continents cātuddīpaka extending over the four continents, i.e. over the whole world catuddisā towards the four quarters; in all directions, all around cātuddisa coming from the four quarters, i.e. from the whole world; universal, total catuddisaṁ null catudhā in four ways; in four parts; in four pieces catudoṇika containing for doṇas catuha null catūha a period of four days catūhapañcāha a period of four or five days catūhapaṭicchanna concealed for four days catuhattha measuring four hattha measures; four hattha measures catukka a set of four; a collection of four; a tetrad; a section consisting of sets of four catukkabhata a meal of four food; a meal for four mendicants catukkaṁsaparama worth at the most four kaṁsas catukkanipāta a section consisting of four catukkaṇṇa four-cornered catukkaṇṇaka having four corners visible (?) catukkhattuṁ four times cātumahābhūtika null cātumahāpatha null cātumahārājika null catumāsa a period of four months; four months catumāsā null cātumāsa a period of four months cātumāsā null cātumāsīnī (the day of the full moon) which ends a four-month period (of rains residence) cātummahābhūtika consisting of the four main elements cātummahāpatha a crossing of high roads; a main crossroad cātummahārājika (adjective & masculine) belonging to the company attending the four great kings, the world guardians; a deva or the devas belonging to that company cātummāsa null catumūlika null catuporisa measuring the height of four men; to the height of four men catuppad having four feet; a quadruped catuppada (adjective & masculine) having four feet; quadruped catuppādaka having four feet catupurisa involving four men caturādhiṭṭhāna having for supports (or resolutions) caturaṁsa null caturaṅgasamannāgata consisting of four parts or aspects; with four factors or aspects caturaṅgi(n) having four parts; consisting of four parts caturaṅgula measuring four inches; measuring four fingers breadth caturaṅgulika measuring four fingers breadth cāturanta ruling over (the earth which is) bounded by the four (oceans) and consists of the four (continents); lord of the whole world caturapassena null caturāpāssena having four supports caturāsīti 84 caturāsītiṁ null caturassa null caturassaka four-cornered; quadrangular catusacca the four truths, the four facts catusaccāni the four truths, the four facts catusahassa four thousand; of four thousand catusaṭṭhi sixty four catutāla measuring the height of four palm-trees, to the height of four palm-trees catuttari with an addition of four, plus four catuttha the fourth; a fourth kind of catutthaka the fourth catutthaṁ for a fourth time catutthe in a fourth case; in the fourth place (?) catuvagga a group of four; consisting of a group of four cātuvaṇṇi(n) connected with the four classes catuvidha null catuvīsa twenty four catuvīsati twenty four catuvīsatima the 24th cātuyāmasaṁvara control in regards to the four restraints cātuyāmasusaṁvuta well controlled in regards to the four restraints catuyojanasitika measuring 400 yojanas catuyojanika four yojanas in extent cavamāna null cāvana causing to move or fall, moving; causing to fall away (from) or abandon cavanadhamma liable to fall from one existence to another; liable or about to die cāvanādhipāya intending or wishing to cause (someone) to fail away (from) or abandon cavanatā the state of falling from one existence; death cavanta null cavati moves or falls from one’s place, goes away; falls away, deviates (from), abandons cāvayamanā null cāvayati null cāvesi null cāvetabba null cāveti causes to move or fall, shifts; causes to fall away (from), to abandon; drives (from) cavi null cavittha null cavitvā null caviya null caviyāna(ṁ null caya (masculine) a mound, a pile; a raised platform; accumulation, assemblage ce if (usually with present indicative or opt., so even for conditions in the past); ~ no ce, if not; ~ yam ce, (after comparative) than; than that cecca null cela cloth; garment celaka standard bearer celaṇḍuka a roll of cloth celāpaka a kind of servant; a nursemaid or playmate celapaṭikā a cloth covering; a length of cloth celapattikā null celāpikā a kind of servant; a nursemaid or playmate ceta used to denote a hunger? ceta(s) the mind as the process of thinking, thinking; thought, thoughts ceṭaka a servant; a slave cetakhila sterility or rigidity of thought cetanā intention; volition cetāpana exchanging; basis for exchange or purchase; asking for cetāpanna null cetapariccañāṇa knowledge encompassing, comprehending, the thoughts (of others) cetapariya the encompassing, comprehension, of the thoughts (of others) cetapariyañāṇa the knowledge (that is) encompassing, comprehending, the thoughts (of others) cetapariyāya way of thought; manner of thinking cetāpenta null cetāpesi null cetāpetabba null cetāpeti (of a bhikkhu or bhikkhunī) has someone give or exchange or buy; (of a layman) exchanges; buys cetāpetvā null cetapharaṇatā the suffusing or pervading the thoughts of others cetāpita asked for; exchanged; bought cetasa with the ability of thought; thinking, intelligent cetasa ceto paricca grasping, comprehending the thoughts (of others) with one’s own thoughts cetasika (adjective) mental; connected with thought or intention cetavasippatta who has become in control of his thoughts, who has attained mastery over his thoughts cetavimutta whose thoughts are freed or free (from defilement or obstruction) in or through advanced stages of meditation cetavimutti the freeing or freedom of thought (from defilement or obstruction) by advanced stages of meditation (a state attained temporarily in meditation and permanently with arahatship cetavimutti(n) whose thoughts are freed or free (in or through advanced stages of meditation) cetavivaraṇasappāya beneficial for clearing the thoughts of obstructions cetavivaṭṭa the turning away of the thoughts cetayamāna null cetayati null cetayī null cetayita (adjective) formed (as an idea) in the mind; intended; (neuter) forming an idea; an intention cetayitvā null ceteti forms an i.e. in the mind; thinks about, is intent upon; has in mind (to); intends, forms an intention (to); strives mentally (for) cetiya a place or object of veneration, a sanctuary or shrine (near a village), perhaps a sacred tree and mound cetiyarukkha a tree that is an object of veneration, a sacred tree cetya null cha six cha(d)disā towards the six directions cha(d)disāpaṭicchādi(n) covering, protecting, in the six directions cha(m)māsa a period of six months; six months cha(m)māsika lasting for six months; being at the age of six months cha(p)paññāsā fifty six cha(p)paṇṇāsa null cha(p)paññāsā(ṁ) null chabbaggiya belonging to the group of six (bhikkhus or bhikkhunīs who are represented as continually violating vinaya rules or expected behavior) chabbīsa twenty six chabbīsati twenty six chacattāḷīsa(ṁ) 46 chacattārīsā 46 chadana a thatch; a roof; a cover chādana covering; cover; roofing; concealment chādapeti null chādayati null chādayitvāna null chaḍḍanīyadhamma to be thrown away chaḍḍāpeti makes throw away or abandon; causes to be thrown away or abandoned; makes vomit or to be vomited chaḍḍayati null chaḍḍayitvāna null chaḍḍenta null chaḍḍesi null chaḍḍesuṁ null chaḍḍetabba null chaḍḍeti vomits; spits out chaḍḍetuṁ null chaḍḍetvā null chaḍḍita (adjective) . thrown away; abandoned; vomited chaḍḍitapaccaya caused by throwing away chaḍḍiya null chaḍḍiyadhamma to be thrown away chaḍḍīyati null chaḍḍīyyati null chaḍḍūna null chādenta null chādesi null chādetabba null chādeti null chādetvā null chadhātura consisting of six elements chādīyati null chāhapaṭicchanna concealed for six days chakalaka a male goat chakana dung chakaṇa null chakaṇati dung chakka a set of six; a section of sets of six chakkanipāta a section consisting of sets of six chakkhattuṁ six times chaḷ null chaḷabhiñña possessing the six special knowledges or powers chamā on the earth; on the ground; on to the ground; the earth; the ground chamāṁ on the ground; to the ground chamānikhitta thrown down on the ground chamānikiṇṇa strewn on the ground chamāya(ṁ) on the ground; to the ground chambhati becomes stiff or rigid; is paralyzed (with fear); (but apparently understood also as shakes) chambhi(n) stiff, rigid (with fear); (but apparently understood also as shakes) chambhita stiffened, benumbed, paralyzed (with fear); (but apparently understood also as) shaking chambhitatta stiffness, paralysis, rigidity (through fear) chamūlaka with six bases chaṇa a festival; a holiday chanda null chanda(s) null chandagami(n) influence by partiality chandāgati wrong way of behavior because of partiality or desire chandaka a free-will offering; a general collection chandānidāna having it’s origin in appetite chandānunīta led by desire; led by one’s own will or wishes chandarāga appetite and desire; desire that is appetite chandāraha entitled to give consent by proxy chandasa null chandāva name of a class of brahmans chandavāsinī a wife obtained with her free will chandena according to one’s will; voluntarily; willingly; according to (one’s own) wishes chandi(n) having appetite or will chandika having appetite or will; eager chandīka null chandikata having appetite or will; eager chandoka an udgātṛ priest; name of a class of brahmans channa null chāpa the young of an animal; a chick chapaka a man of a low outcast tribe chapakī a woman of a low outcast tribe chaphassāyatanika connected with the six spheres of perception chāpi the young of an animal; a chick chaporisa measuring the height of six men chappañca five or six chappañcavassika lasting for five or six years chāratta (a period of) six nights chārattaṁ for six nights chārattaparamaṁ for six nights at the most chārattūna less six nights chārikā ash; ashes chasahassa numbering six thousand chasamannāgata with six parts or six characteristics chasattati seventy six chāta hungry chatāla measuring the height of six palm trees; to the height of six palm trees chatra null chatta umbrella; sunshade; a parasol; a parasol erected on a thūpa chattaka a parasol chattanāḷi the handle of a sunshade chattapāṇī with a parasol in one’s hand chattappagahita carrying a parasol chaṭṭayati null chaṭṭeti throws away chaṭṭha sixth chattiṁsa thirty six chattiṁsā thirty six chattiṁsaka (the group) consisting of 36 chattiṁsakkhattuṁ 36 times chattiṁsati thirty six chattiṁsatī null chava (m. feminine) a corpse; a dead body chavadāhaka null chavaḍāhaka one who officially burns the dead chavadussa clothes from corpses or very poor clothes chavaka null chavakuṭikā charnel house; a shelter or platform for corpses chavālāta fire brand or kindling for a funeral a pyre chavasisa a skull chavasitta a pot used at rites for the dead, a funeral pot chavaṭṭhika a bone of a corpse chavi skin; especially the outer layer of the skin; the epidermis; an integument chāyā shade; shadow chayojanasatika measuring 600 yojanas chayojanika six yojanas in extent checchati null chedagāmi(n) going to naught, ending in loss; certain to break chedana cutting; severing; destruction chedanā cutting chedanabandhana cutting and binding chedanaka (of the (expiation of) an offense); entailing cutting chedāpaya(t) null chedāpayati null chedāpayitvāna null chedāpenta null chedāpesi caused to cut or break chedāpetabba null chedāpeti null chedāpetvā null chedāpita (caused to be) cut or cut off chedetabba null chedetvā having cut, cut off; having caused to cut off, chejja (neuter) fit to cut off; liable to break; (neuter) cutting; cutting off; cutting off one’s limbs; cutting off from the saṅgha chejjā cutting off; cutting chejjabhejja cutting and breaking; physical punishment chejjavatthu a ground for cutting off (someone) from the saṅgha cheka competent, expert, knowledgeable (about); skillful, skilled (in, usually locative); clever, good at cheppā the tail cheta(r) null chetabba null chetta(r) one who cuts; one who cuts off; one who cuts away chettabba null chettuṁ null chetuṁ null chetvā null chetvāna null chidda (adjective) having a hole or holes; split; having gaps; defective chiddakarin making a split (in); making defective chiddava(t) having a hole; defective chiddāvacchidda full of holes; full of large or small holes chiggala a hole? chiggaḷa null chijjamāna null chijjatha null chijjati null chinda(t) null chindanta null chindati cuts; chops; cuts off; cuts out; inscribes chindi null chindiṁsu null chindita cutting chindita(r) one who cuts chindituṁ null chinditvā null chindiya null chinna (adjective) having broken; dried up; come to an end chinnababbhara null chinnabhabbhara not making the sound bharabhara? chinnaka (adjective) cut; made up of cut pieces of cloth chinnamūlaka with its root(s) cut away chinnapapātaṁ falling as if cut down; or with a sudden steep fall(?) headlong, precipitately chinnapātaṁ null chinnapilotika revealed; uncovered chinnasassara not making the sound saṁsara? chinnasota who has crossed or cut off the stream, who has brought the flow to an end chinnavaṭuma who has brought the path to an end; who has broken the cycle chinniriyāpatha whose movement is destroyed, who is unable to move; a cripple chuddha thrown away, rejected, abandoned chuddhūna having thrown away, rejected, abandoned chuḍḍūna null chupana touching chupanta null chupati touches chupi null chupita touched chupitabba null chūrikā a dagger; a knife cicciṭāti null cicciṭāyati hisses; fizzes; makes the sound “chit-chit”; makes a hissing sound cicciṭi a hissing sound cihacihābhinadita the sound of cihaciha birds; or the sound of chirping cikkhalla (m. neuter) mire; mud cilimikā null cimilika a strip of cloth; an (under-) mat of strips of cloth(?) ciṅgulaka a toy wind mill ciṅgulayitvā having turned or whirled around ciṅgulāyitvā null ciṅgulika null cinitvā having heaped up; having collected ciṇṇa (adjective) journeyed through; traveled or roamed (over); lived in, experienced; (nominative impersonal) a journey was made; the was going about; practiced; observed; habitually engaged in; done; (of a penance) undergone ciṇṇamānatta who has gone the mānatta penance cintā thinking; anxious thought; worry cintākavi one who produces a poem after (considerable) thought cintāmaya produced by thinking or reflection cintayamāna null cintayanta null cintayati null cintayi null cintayitvā null cintenta null cintetabba to be thought about; to be imagined; within the scope of thought; there must be thought; (one) must be concerned about cinteti to be thought about; to be imagined; within the scope of thought; there must be thought; (one) must be concerned about cintita thought, thought of; imagined; reflected upon thought out cintiyamāna null cira a long time; delay cirāciraṁ after a long time; at long intervals ciradikkhita long-consecrated; initiated long ago ciradiṭṭha not seen for a long time; seen (only) a long time ago cīrakavāsika ‘wearing strips’, a kind of torture ciraṁ (for) a long time ciranissina having sat for a long time ciranivāsī(n) staying for a long time cirapabbajita who took up the ascetic life a long time ago cirapaṭika null cirapaṭikā for a long time, since a long time ago; or being for a long time cirappanaṭṭha long disappeared cirappavāsi(n) long absent from home ciraratta a long time cirarattaṁ for a long time cirassa after a long time cirassaṁ after a long time; at last; after so long; it’s a long time since… cirassuta heard (only) a long time ago; not heard for a long time cirataraṁ for a longer time; for a very long time; more slowly ciratta long duration cirattaṁ for a long time ciraṭṭhitika enduring for a long time; long-lived; enduring for a longer time cirāya for a long time cirayapanā living for a long time; long life cirayvippavuttha long absent cīrikāsadda the sound of the cricket cīriḷikā a cricket cīriḷikāsadda the sound of the cricket cita heaped; piled up; built; accumulated citaka funeral pile citantaraṁsa whose back is flat (i.e. not hollow) between the shoulder-blades (one of the 32 characteristics of a mahapurisa) ciṭiciṭāyati makes the sound “citi-citi”; sputters, makes a sputtering sound citra null citrachada with variegated wings citrakathi(n) null citrapāṭalī null citta null citta(p)pamāthi(n) troubling, harassing the thoughts cittabhāvanā mental development or accomplishments cittadubbhaka a mind that is an injurer; a treacherous mind? cittāgāra a decorated pleasure house cittakā a many colored woolen covering cittakali a mind that is bad luck; a mind of ill omen cittakamma painting; the art of painting; ornamentation cittakāra a painter; decorator cittakāraka a painter cittakata adorned; painted cittakathī(n) one who speaks brilliantly; whose talk is varied cittakathika one who speaks brilliantly; whose talk is varied cittakelisa an affliction, a defilement of the thoughts cittakhata one who speaks brilliantly; whose talk is varied cittakkhepa derangement of the mind/thoughts cittaklesa an affliction, a defilement of the thoughts cittālaṅkāra which adorns or improves (makes fit?) cittālaṅkāracittaparikkhāra adornment or improvement (making fit?) and equipping of thinking? cittantara having the interval of a thought moment cittānupassi(n) considering; contemplating the thinking or thoughts cittānurakkhi(n) who guards the thoughts cittanvaya linked to, dependent on the thoughts cittaparikkhāra (masculine) equipping, making fit the thinking cittapāṭalī, citrapāṭalī a kind of tree cittappakopana agitating, irritating thinking or thoughts cittappamaddi(n) crushing the thoughts cittarūpaṁ as one’s intentions; in accordance with one’s thoughts; satisfactorily(?) cittasamādhāna fixing; stilling of thoughts; profound meditation cittasamuṭṭhāna having its origin in thoughts or consciousness; arising from the mind or consciousness cittasaṅkhara a mental motive force; mental activity cittatara more varied or diversified cittavikkhepa distraction; derangement of thoughts cittavipallāssa null cittavipariyāsakata afflicted with delusion of thought cittekagga concentration of thought cittika a painting; a picture cittīka null cittīkāra respect; consideration cittikata null cittīkata thought highly of; respected, honored; valued cittīkataṁ with respect; showing respect cittīkatvā having shown respect; thought highly of; valued cittīkatvānā null cittiṁkaritvā respect; consideration; values cittiṁkaritvānā null cittita made variegated, made diverse; decorated; painted cīvara one of the three robes of a bhikkhu (antaravāsaka, uttarāsaṅga and saṅghāti), or one of the five robes of a bhikkhuni (those three plus saṅkacchika and udakasāṭika), especially the uttarasaṅga or saṅghati (prob. both sewn of pieces as a patchwork, and dyed a yellowish-red); one of the extra robes allowed; material for making the robe(s) cīvarabhājaka (one) who distributes material for robes cīvarabhisī a roll for robes cīvaracetāpana something to be exchanged for robe material; the purchase price for robe material cīvaracetāpanna null cīvaradhāraṇa the wearing of the (ascetic’s) robe; keeping a robe cīvaradussa (a piece of) cloth for making robes cīvarahetu for the sake of a robe cīvarakālasamaya proper time when robe material is given cīvarakamma robe making; robe work cīvarakārasamaya a time for making or working on robes cīvaralesa an oblique or indirect statement connected with a robe cīvaranidahaka (one) who keeps or stores the material for robes cīvaranidāhaka null cīvarapaccāsā the expectation of receiving a robe or material for a robe cīvarapaṭiggāhaka (one) who receives robe material (on behalf of the saṅgha cīvarapaṭiviṁsa a share or portion of material for robe civarapativisa null cīvarapaṭivisa null cīvarapaṭivīsa null cīvararajju a rope for hanging the robes cīvarasaṅkamanīya a robe which has to be handed back; a borrowed robe cīvaravaṁsa a bamboo rod for hanging up robes cīvaravibhaṅga the distribution of material for robes cīvaravicāraṇa considering, planning (the making of robes) cīyate null cīyati is accumulated; increases cocapāna a drink made from plantains codaka (one) who reproves, or exhorts to action; (one) who accuses (of an offense) codana null codanā exhorting to action; admonition, reproof, criticism codanāvatthu ground for criticism or accusation codāpeti causes (someone) to make an accusation or criticism; drives on, incites codayamāna null codayati null codayitvā null codenta null codesi null codesuṁ) null codeta(r) one who admonishes; one who accuses (of an offense) codetabba null codeti incites, causes to move quickly, drives on; exhorts to action codetvā null codita incited, driven on; exhorted (to action); admonished codiyamāna null cola null coḷa cloth; a piece of cloth; a garment coḷabhisi a cushion stuffed with cloth colaka null coḷaka a piece of cloth; a rag coḷapaṭṭa a strip of cloth coḷavaṭṭi a roll of cloth coḷaveṇi a twist or plait of cloth copayati null copeti moves (transitive) cora a thief; robber; a bandit corābhinīta driven by bandits; brought low by bandits coragāmanī a leader of thieves; a leader of bandits coragāmaṇika null coraghāta an executioner or torturer coraghātaka an executioner or torturer coraka a thief corapaccatthika a hostile bandit; a thief who is an enemy corasādhāraṇa vulnerable to thieves corī a female thief corikā null corikāya by stealing, by robbing; clandestinely corīvaṭṭhāpana ordaining a (female) thief cuddasa (number) 14 cuddasaka a set of 14; containing (poems) of 14 verses cuddasama the 14th cudita roused or exhorted to action; impelled cuditaka accused of an offense; the bhikkhu accused of an offense cūḷanika small; lesser cūḷasīla null cūḷāsīti null cūḷikābaddha filled full; crammed culla a fireplace; a hearth cullasīla the lesser (rules) of moral behavior cullāsīti eighty four cumbaṭa a coil, a ring; a circular roll of cloth (used as a stand for a vessel, especially when carried on the head) cuṇṇa powder; chunam; powder used, mixed with water for washing/bathing cuṇṇacālanī a strainer cuṇṇaka a hard substance ground into a powder or dust; aromatic powder; powder for washing cuṇṇakajāta reduced to powder; turned to dust cuṇṇakamakkhita smeared with powder cuṇṇeti powders; covers with powder cuta moved or fallen (from one ’s place); (who has) fallen away; who has abandoned (the holy life) cuti falling from one existence (to another); death; cessation cutūpapāta dying and coming into existence, death and rebirth dabba null dabbajātika being by nature wise or skilled dabbha kusa grass dabbī a ladle; a spoon dabbigāha (one) who holds the ladle dabbīhoma an offering made with a ladle dada(t) null dadāma null dadamāna null dadāmase null dadanta null dadantu null dadāti gives; makes a gift; yields; applies daddallamāna shining brilliantly daddara a kind of drum daḍḍha burnt; what is burnt daddu a kind of cutaneous eruption; a skin disease daddulabhakka eating sediment or scrapings (from leather working) dade null dadehi null dadetha null dadeyya null dadeyyaṁ null dadeyyāma null dadeyyāsi null dadeyyuṁ null dadhate null dadhāti null dadhi sour, coagulated milk dadhimaṇḍaka whey dāḍima the pomegranate tree; saf: punica granatum l dadiṁsu null daditvā null daha a lake or a pool dāha null ḍaha null ḍāha burning; fever; heat daha(t) null ḍaha(t) null dahanta null ḍahanta null dahāpeti null dahara young; an infant; a young boy, a youth; a young girl daharaka young daharatagge from childhood; from youth dahati null ḍahati burns, consumes; torments dahetvā null ḍahetvā null dahitvā null ḍahitvā null dajjā null dajja(ṁ) null dajjāmi null dajjehi are giving; are making a gift; are yielding; are applying dajjeyyāma null dajjeyyāsi null dajjeyyātha null dajjuṁ null daka water ḍāka a potherb, a green vegetable dakāsaya (a creature) living in water dakkha able, adroit, dexterous; clever, skilled dakkhati will see dakkhi null dakkhiṇa (adjective) right (not left); (masculine) the right hand; ~ dakkhiṇāpatha the southern region, the Deccan dakkhiṇāpathaka belonging to the southern region; from the Deccan dakkhiṇato to the south (of); to the right; from the south dakkhiṇāvattaka null dakkhiṇāvaṭṭaka winding to the right dakkhiṇeyya one worthy of a dakkhiṇā, of a gift dakkhisaṁ null dakkhisatti (we) will see dakkhissaṁ null dakkhitāye (to) see dakkhiti null dakkhituṁ (to) see dakkhuṁ null dālayati null dālayitvā null dāleti splits; tears open daḷha firm; strong; solid daḷhadamma null daḷhadamma(n) null daḷhadammi(n) having a strong bow daḷhaṁ firmly; strongly daḷhamaṭṭalākoṭṭhaka with strong gatehouses and watchtowers daḷhikamma null daḷhīkamma strengthening; making firm; confirmation daḷhuddāpa having a strong surrounding mound or rampart dalidda poor; needy; a poor person daḷidda null daliddaka poor daḷiddaka null dāliddiya poverty; need dāḷiddiya null dama (masculine) self control, self restraint; subduing; forbearance dāma a string, a rope; a garland dāmā null damaka one who subsists on leavings in return for service or as an ascetic practice damassu null damatha taming; subduing; restraint; mastery damaya(t) null damayahi null damayati null damayissaṁ null damessati null dameta(r) ones who tames or subdues; a trainer dameti tames; makes tame; subdues damita subdued; tamed damma null dammago a young untamed cow dammi null ḍaṁsa a gadfly; a stinging insect ḍaṁsādhipātā flies and gadflies ḍaṁsati bites ḍaṁsitabba null dāna a gift; giving; liberality; alms; applying dānapati a lord of liberality, a very generous giver daṇḍa a piece of wood; a club; a stick, a staff, a rod; an ascetic’s staff daṇḍādāna taking up a stick, violence daṇḍaka a small stick, a twig; a staff, a rod daṇḍakamma a punishment; a penance; reparation daṇḍakathālikā a pot with a handle daṇḍakaṭhina an extra frame (within the kathina framework) daṇḍamānavaka a kind of bird (?) daṇḍamāṇavaka null daṇḍapāṇī with a staff in one’s hand daṇḍaparāyana dependent on a stick daṇḍaparissāvana a kind of sieve or filter (made on a wooden framework) daṇḍapesuṁ were fined daṇḍasatthaka a knife with a handle daṇḍavāgurā null daṇḍavākarā a net on a stick; a kind of snare daṇḍavākurā null dandha slow; silly; stupid; sluggish dandhābbhiñña of slow understanding; characterized by slow intuition dandhaṁ slowly; sluggishly dandhati is slow; is sluggish; delays dandhayati null dandhāyita slow; hesitating dandhāyitatta slowness; hesitation; delaying dandheti null daṇḍita punished; fined dāni now, at this moment; just now danta null dantabhūmi the condition of one who is tamed dantājina ivory and hides dantakāra an artisan in ivory; an ivory-worker dantakāsāva an ivory colored robe dantakaṭṭha a tooth stick (used to clean the teeth) dantakūṭa teeth like a hammer? dantapoṇa a tooth cleaner, a tooth stick dantavaṇṇaka ivory colored dantavatā the being (like) one who is tamed? dantavidaṁsaka showing one’s teeth dantavidaṁsakaṁ null dantūllehakam tearing up with their teeth dāpayati null dāpenta null dāpesi null dāpeti induces to give dāpetvā null dara being hot; fever; distress dāra a wife; wives dārabharaṇa supporting a wife dārābharaṇa null dāraka a child; a boy, a son; a young animal daratha being hot or inflamed; distress; exhaustion dārikā a girl, a daughter dāru a piece of wood, a plank; firewood; sticks; timber dārudhītalikā a wooden doll dārugaha a wood store; a timber store dāruka a piece of wood; log dārukapillaka a wooden doll or puppet dārumāsaka a wooden coin dāruṇa hard, severe; cruel, pitiless; dreadful, frightful, terrible dārupattika (one) who uses a wooden bowl dasa ten dasā the loose end of a cloth; an edge or border dāsa a slave dasabala null dasabalāni null dasaddha five dasadhā in ten parts, in ten groups, into ten pieces; tenfold dasadisā towards the ten directions; in every direction, all around dasaha a period of ten days dasahā within ten days dasahāpaṭicchanna concealed for ten days dasaka a set of ten; a collection of ten, a decad; a section consisting of sets of ten dāsakammakarā slaves and servants dasakanipāta a section consisting of sets of ten dāsakaputta a retainer, a vassal dasakkhattuṁ a set of ten; a collection of ten, a decad; a section consisting of sets of ten dasama the tenth dasamūlaka (what is) based on ten items; (a statement or exposition) concerned with ten items dasapada a checkered board (for gambling or playing a game) dāsaporisa slaves and serving-men dasasahassī consisting of 10,000 (cakkavāḷas) dasasata (numbering) one thousand dasasatakkhatuṁ a thousand times dasasikkhāpadika (one) who follows, observes, the ten sikkhāpadas ḍasati null dasavagga a group of ten; consisting of a group of ten dasavaggika forming a group of ten dasavāsa following the ten ways of living dasavassa of ten years’ standing; one who has been ordained for ten years dasavassāyuka having a life span of ten years dasavassuddesika about ten years old dāsaviya null dāsavya slavery; servitude; the condition of being a slave dāsi a female slave dāsī a female slave; a concubine dāsidāsa null dāsīdāsa male and female slaves dasika an end or edge of cloth; a hem or border dasikā null dasikasutta thread from the end of cloth(?) a loose thread dāsiputta the son of a female slave ḍasitabba null dassaṁ null dassāma null dassāmi null dassana (neuter) seeing; looking; sight (of); eyesight dassanakāma wanting to see (accusative or genitive) dassananuttariya null dassanānuttariya excellence of seeing or insight dassaneyya null dassanīya to be seen; worth seeing; beautiful dassanīyatara more beautiful dassāpetvā having shown; having exhibited dassati null ḍassati null dassāvi(n) who has seen; who goes to see, attends; seeing dassaya(t) null dassayati null dassenta null dassesi null dassesu null dassesuṁ null dasseta(r) one who shows, who makes appear dassetabba null dasseti shows; reveals, exhibits, demonstrates; makes appear, makes visible dassetuṁ null dassetvā null dassi(n) seeing; understanding dassita shown; exhibited dassita(r) null dassukhīla brigandage dāta(r) one who gives, a giver (+ genitive or accusative) dātabba to be given; to be imposed; one must give; there must be giving dātave null dāṭha null dāṭhā a fang; the canine tooth dāṭhabala strong-toothed; whose strength is his teeth dāṭhābali(n) null dāṭhi(n) having large teeth or fangs; having tusks dāṭhikā whiskers; mustache datta mad; foolish; wild; arrogant dattha null daṭṭha bitten ḍaṭṭha bitten daṭṭha(r) one who sees daṭṭhabba to be seen; to be considered as daṭṭhayya null daṭṭheyya null daṭṭhu null daṭṭhuṁ null datti a gift (of food); (according to commentaries) a small bowl) dattika (what is) given dattiya null dattu null dattupaññata declared by fools dātuṁ null dātuye null datvā null dava play, sport; joking dāva null davadāha null davaḍāha forest fire; wood on fire davaḍāhaka one who burns wood daya null dayā sympathy; compassion; kindness (towards, usually locative) dāya a forest; a park dāyāda one who inherits; an heir dāyādaka an heir dāyādikā an heiress dāyajja (neuter) inheritance dāyaka who gives, bestows; a donor, a benefactor dāyapāla the keeper or guardian of a park dayāpanna full of compassion and kindness dayati goes ḍayati null dayhamāna null ḍayhamāna null dayhanta null ḍayhanta null dayhati null ḍayhati null ḍayhiṁsu null ḍayhittho null dayita cherished; dear deḍḍubha a water snake; a kind of lizard deḍḍubhaka a water snake; a kind of lizard deha a body dehaka (according to commentary) a part of the body, a limb dema null ḍeṇḍima null denta null dentu null desa a place, an area; a region, a district desaka a point, a matter desanā instruction; exposition; discourse desanāgāmi(n) requiring, expiated by, confession or acknowledgment desāpetabba null desāpeti makes teach or expound; makes assign; makes tell or confess desāpetvā null desaya(t) null desayanta null desayati null desayī null desayissāmi null desenta null desesi null desessaṁ null desessāmi null desesuṁ null deseta(r) one who teaches or expounds desetabba null deseti teaches, expounds; points out; assigns desetuṁ null desetvā null desissāmi null desita taught, expounded; pointed out; specified, assigned; told, confessed desitavatthuka on a site pointed out or specified desituṁ null desiya null desiyamāna null desīyati null dessa to be hated; hateful dessiya null deta(r) one who gives deti gives; makes a gift; yields; applies ḍeti flies; goes detu null deva (masculine) a deity; a god; especially the various groups of gods devadeva the god of gods devadhammika a member of a particular sect (of ascetics ?) devadundubhi thunder devadūta god’s messenger, a warning of mortality devagaharaka who disparages the devas devajigucchaka who dislikes or disapproves of the gods devakaññā a heavenly girl, a female deva devakāya a deva world or sphere; a collective body of devas devaloka the world of the gods; a sphere of the gods devalokagamanīya leading to the world of the devas devalokagāminiya null devanikāya a group or assemblage of devas devaññatara one of the devas; some deva or other; a lesser deva devaputta a male deva devarāja a king of the gods (usually Sakka/lnda) devarāja(n) null devasadda shout of the devas; sound of the devas; thunder devasikaṁ daily; every day devatā a deity; a god (male or female; often identified with the (various groups of) devas, but more often a god or spirit living on earth close to men, in trees, rivers, buildings etc.) devatānussati recalling the gods to mind devatta the state of being a deva; divinity devattana the state of being a deva devatuposatha an act of purification in the presence of the gods devatūposatha null devayāniya leading to the devas devī a female divinity, a goddess; a queen among the gods deyya to be given; there must be giving; a gift deyyadhamma a fee; a gift; something (suitable) to give dha here, in this place; in this world; in this existence; in this teaching dhaja a standard, a flag, a banner; a badge, a mark, emblem or characteristic sign dhajabaddha null dhajabandha marked; notorious (?) dhajāhaṭa (a wife) taken as captive during a war dhajālu adorned with flags dhaji(n) bearing standards, an army dhakkhiṇā a gift, a donation; a fee; the benefit or merit of a gift dhakkhiṇaggi the fire that is one worthy of gifts dhakkhiṇena on the south or right side; to the south dhamamāna null dhamani a bodily vessel; a vein; a nerve dhamanisantha covered, spread with veins; with prominent veins, i.e. emaciated dhamanisanthatagatta with limbs covered with prominent veins dhamanisaṇṭhita null dhamati melts or manufactures by blowing, smelts; blows away dhamayati null dhameti null dhamma how the world of experience works, the processes by which it works and is explained (especially as formulated in cattāri ariyasaccānī and paṭiccasamuppāda), and the possibility and way of transcending it, as understood by the Buddha and taught by him (so that knowledge and understanding of it might bring awakening, arhantship, to others) dhamma(d)dasa seeing, understanding, dhamma dhamma(n) dry soil; a shore dhamma(t)thera an elder in dhamma, one venerable because of his qualities dhammabhisamaya right understanding of dhamma dhammacakka the wheel or discuss of dhamma's authority (especially as initiated by the Buddha’s first teaching); the sway of dhamma dhammacakkappavattana preaching of the universal righteousness dhammacakkhu insight into, understanding of, dhamma dhammacāri(n) acting, behaving, rightly dhammacariyā right action, virtuous behavior dhammacetiya veneration of dhamma dhammacintanā reflection on, examination of, dhamma dhammacodaka (a bhikkhu) who accuses (someone) of an offense properly, by the rules dhammādāsa the mirror of the dhamma dhammadesanā teaching, exposition of, dhamma dhammadessi(n) who hates, is hostile to, dhamma dhammadhara (one) versed in dhamma; (one) who holds firm to dhamma dhammadhātu the element, the sphere, the range, of dhamma and/or dhammas, i.e. the whole world of experience dhammadhipa with dhamma as master; guided by dhamma dhammādhipatteyya (neuter) control by dhamma dhammadīpa with dhamma as an island, a refuge; relying on dhamma dhammagarahi(n) blaming, finding fault with, dhamma dhammagārava (neuter) respect for dhamma dhammagaru respectful, obedient to, dhamma dhammagutta protected by the dhamma; who protects the dhamma dhammajīvi(n) living doing what is right; honest and dutiful dhammakamma an official act of the saṅgha correctly carried out; a valid act dhammakaraka a water-vessel dhammakathā a discourse on dhamma; talk about dhamma dhammakathika (one) who discourses on dhamma; a preacher dhammakāya (one) who has a body which is dhamma dhammakkhandha a group of dhammas (as good practices and attainments) dhammaṁ carati does one’s duty, does what is right; lives righteously; practices the dhamma dhammanetti the leading rope, the guiding rope, that is dhamma (?) dhammanijjhānakhanti readiness to accept teachings after reflection; teachings preferred after reflection dhammanisanti attending carefully to dhamma dhammaññū knowing the dhamma; knowing what is right dhammanupassi(n) observing, considering, dhammas dhammanusāri(n) who follows dhamma; who develops understanding dhammanussati calling dhamma to mind dhammānuvatti(n) acting in conformity with dhamma dhammapada a portion of dhamma; an element of practice; a portion of the teaching dhammapariyatti learning the dhamma, mastering the teachings dhammapariyāya a method of teaching dhamma; an exposition of dhamma dhammapaṭirūpaka a false representation of the teachings or the rule dhammapaṭisambhidā analytic knowledge of dhamma or dhammas; understanding of causes dhammapaṭisaṁyutta connected with dhamma dhammapīti drinking the dhamma (according to commentaries) dhammarāja null dhammarāja(n) a just king; a rightful dhammārāma delighting in the mental constructs; delighting in dhamma dhammasamuppāda an arising of dhammas; an event, a matter dhammasandosa defilement of, damage to, dhamma dhammasaṅgaha favoring, kind treatment, with dhamma dhammasāri(n) following dhamma (?); impelling dhamma (?) dhammatā normal custom, habit; what is to be expected; the usual way dhammatta the being legal or valid, the being according to the rule dhammaṭṭha (one) who abides by what is right or is the rule; just; rightly based; firm in dhamma dhammatthenaka a thief of dhamma (who enters the saṅgha dishonestly) dhammavādi(n) speaking what is dhamma, what is in accordance with the teaching or the rule; declaring dhamma dhammaveda knowledge or joy in the teaching dhammavicaya discrimination of dhammas; discernment of dhamma (one of the seven bojjhaṅgas) dhammayāgi(n) (one) who offers dhamma dhammāyatana the object that is a mental construct dhammayoga applying oneself to the dhamma, to the teachings dhammcudita (a bhikkhu) accused of an offense properly, by the rules dhammcuditaka null dhammena in accordance with the teaching, the rule; properly dhammī connected with dhamma dhammika in conformity with the rule or regulation dhammīkathā talk connected with dhamma dhammiya null dhammiyamāna acting in accordance with dhamma, with the rule dhammketu with dhamma as one’s banner dhammūpahāra the presenting of ideas, images, or of the teachings dhammūpasaṁhita connected with the dhamma dhaṁsati null dhaṁsayati null dhaṁseti null dhaṁsi(n) bold, insolent; offensive dhana wealth, riches, money, treasure dhanadhāniya null dhanahāraka taking money; going to take money dhanajāni loss of wealth; a fine dhanakkīta purchased dhanava(t) wealthy, rich dhanāyati desires, wishes for dhandhañña money and grain dhanika a creditor dhaniya null dhāniya grain; corn dhaṅka a crow dhaṅkarūpa with the appearance of a crow dhañña grain; corn dhaññāgāra a granary dhaññakarana a threshing floor dhaññasamavāpaka grain and seeds dhanta smelted dhanu a bow dhanuggaha who bears a bow; an archer dhanuka a small bow dhanukalāpa quiver and bow dhanusata a 100 bow-lengths dhārā null dhārakajātika naturally remembering; good at remembering dharaṇī the earth; soil; ground dhāraṇīyā null dharati holds, holds in mind; remembers dharayati null dhārayati null dhārayi null dhārayiṁ null dhārayitvā null dhārayuṁ null dhārenta null dhāresi null dhāresuṁ null dhāreta(r) one who memorizes; keeps in mind dhāretabba null dhareti null dhāreti bears; holds, carries; preserves, keeps; upholds, maintains; uses, wears dhāretvā null dhārita carried, worn, used; memorized dhāritabba null dhāriyamāna being held; being held over, standing over, sheltering dhārīyati is carried; is held dhāropa (a dialect word for) a bowl or a dish dhata held, held in mind; remembered, memorized dhāta satisfied; replete dhāti null dhātī a nurse; a wet-nurse dhāticela a nurse’s garment dhātu the basic material element; a primary element dhava a type of tree (grislea tomentosa or anogeissus latifolia) dhāva running, racing dhāva(t) null dhāvanta null dhāvati runs; streams; rushes; runs around dhenu a milch cow; a cow; a female animal in general dhenupa a suckling calf; (or a milch cow) dhenupaka a suckling calf dhi shame! out upon … !; an exclamation expressing reproach or displeasure or disgust dhī null dhīra intelligent, wise; steadfast, firm, resolute dhīrūpasevanā association with the wise dhītā null dhīta(r) a daughter dhiti holding; firmness; constant; steadfast energy; resolution dhītī null dhītikā a doll dhitima(t) steadfast, firm, resolute dhitimanta null dhītumaraṇa the death of a daughter or of daughters dhona purified, pure dhorayha (one) who is fit to be harnessed to the pole; who is fit to bear a burden; a draft animal dhorayhasīla accustomed to bear burdens, to take on duties dhorayhavatā the being (like) one who is fit to bear a burden (?) dhoreyya null dhota (adjective) washed, cleaned; clean; polished; washed off dhotapaccatthara a rug (for when one has) washed feet (?) dhotapādaka (neuter) something to step on after washing one’s feet dhova(t) null dhovana rinsing, washing; washing off dhovanā (an instrument) for washing dhovanta null dhovāpenta null dhovāpesi null dhovāpesuṁ null dhovāpeti null dhovāpita null dhovati washes; rinses; cleanses; polishes; purifies dhovi null dhoviṁ null dhovitabba null dhovituṁ null dhovitvā null dhovīyati null dhuma null dhūma smoke dhūmaggi a smoky fire (?); flames enveloped in smoke (?) dhūmakālikaṁ until death or cremation (or adjective, lasting until cremation (?) dhūmanetta a pipe for (inhaling or ingesting) smoke dhūmāyanā smoking, smoldering; pondering dhūmāyati smokes; smolders; clouds over dhūmāyita obscured, darkened (as if by smoke); hot, suffering dhūmāyitatta smoky darkness dhūmāyitvā null dhuna part of the cutting instrument (?); part of the nose (?) dhunamāna null dhunāti shakes, tosses; shakes off removes, liberates oneself from; destroys dhūpāyanā null dhūpāyati null dhūpāyita null dhura (adjective) the pole, the shaft of a wagon or carriage; a yoke dhuradhorayha (one) who is to be harnessed to the wagon-pole or yoke; a draft animal; or (according to commentaries) the two pairs of draft animals dhuradhoreyya null dhurasamādhi proper alignment, evenness of the yoke dhurassaha bearing the pole or yoke dhurava(t) carrying one’s burden, undertaking responsibility dhuta (adjective) who has shaken off or abandoned (defilements); pure, purified dhutaṅga one of 13 special ascetic practices (undertaken voluntarily, not enjoined upon the saṅgha) dhutaṅgaguṇa an ascetic practice dhutaṅgakilesa who has shaken off, destroyed the defilements dhutaṇgavāda speaking of, preaching dhutaṅgas; instructing in ascetic practices dhutta a gambler; a bad character; a cheat, a scoundrel, a rake dhuttaka a gambler; a bad character; a cheat, a scoundrel, a rake dhuttī a deceitful or wanton woman; (adjective) cheating; dissolute; immoral dhuttikā a deceitful or wanton woman; (adjective) cheating; dissolute; immoral dhuva (adjective) fixed, firm; constant, lasting; permanent; certain, sure dhuvabhatta regular food; a guaranteed meal (for a particular person?) dhuvabhattika having a regular supply of meals dhuvacolā constantly wearing a menstruation cloth dhuvacoḷā null dhuvati null dhuvaṭṭhāniya belonging to a fixed place dhuvayāgu a regular gift of rice gruel dibba divine; heavenly; belonging to gods; supernatural; magical, marvelous dibbā sotadhātu godlike or supernatural hearing dibbacakkhu the divine eye; supernatural sight dibbacakkhuka who possesses supernatural sight dibbaṁ cakkhu the divine eye; supernatural sight dibbasota supernatural hearing dibbasotadhātu supernatural hearing dibbati sports, amuses oneself; plays (with dice), gambles; is bright, shines; (goes; praises; is able) dibya null dicchati wishes to give; gives diddha smeared; poisoned diddhagada null diddhagata poisoned?; (smeared with poison?) dīgha long (in space or time) dīghalomaka long haired dīghaṁ long dīghaṅguli having long fingers (one of the 32 characteristics of a mahapurisa) dīghanikāya the group of long suttas (one of the divisions of the suttapiṭaka of the Pāḷi canon) dīghānusayi(n) persistent for a long time dīghānusayita persistent for a long time dīghapiṭṭhika (adjective) long backed; (masculine) snake dīgharattaṁ for a long time dīgharattassa for a long time dīgharattāya for a long time dīghaso null dīghato in length; lengthways dīghatta length; the being long dīghāyuka long lived diguṇa null dija null dīnamana distressed in mind; dejected dindima null ḍiṇḍima a kind of drum dinna (adjective) given; applied, what is given dinnādāyī(n) taking (only) what is given dinnapāṭikaṅkhi(n) wishing for only what is given dīpa null dipada null dipādaka null dīpayati null dīpenta null dīpeti reveals, makes manifest; declares, proclaims; explains, makes clear; illustrates dīpi(n) a panther; a leopard dīpikā covered in panther or leopard skin dippati null disa an enemy disā null disādāha null disāḍāha a glow or burning in the sky disaṅgamika intending to go elsewhere, to go to another place disaṅgamiya null disaṅgata who has gone elsewhere, to another place disāpāmokkha preeminent in the world; famed far and wide disati grants; points out; shows disodisaṁ hither and thither; in various locations dissamāna null dissate null dissati is seen; is visible; appears; seems disvā null disvāna null disvānaṁ null ditta null diṭṭha (passive) seen; recognized; being seen; visible; what is seen diṭṭhā thank heavens! what luck! diṭṭhadhamma who has seen the dhamma diṭṭhadhammābhinibbuta calmed in this life (or: who has seen the dhamma and is calmed?) diṭṭhadhammanibbāna nibbāna in this life diṭṭhadhammasukha happiness in this life diṭṭhadhammika belonging to this world; belonging to this life diṭṭhānugati imitation of what is seen; following the example diṭṭhānusaya an inherent tendency to (false) views; persistent (wrong) views diṭṭhapubba seen before; previously seen diṭṭhāvikamma revealing one’s opinion; voicing one’s dissent diṭṭhe (va) dhamme in this life; in this world diṭṭheyya null diṭṭhi view, belief, opinion; theory, doctrine; especially false theory diṭṭhigata a (false) view, a theory diṭṭhinijjhānakkhanti readiness to accept a view after reflection; a view preferred after reflection(?) diṭṭhinipātta a look; a glance diṭṭhipatta (one) who has achieved insight; who has achieved (nibbāna) through insight diṭṭhiyā following views diṭṭhiyāyaka null diṭṭhupādāna the grasping of views; the fuel that is (false) views diṭṭhūpādāna null diva heaven; the sky divā by day; in the day divaḍḍha null divādivassa in the middle of the day; rather late in the day divārattiṁ by night and day divasa a day; day divasaṁ during the day divāseyyā rest, sleep in the daytime; a siesta divāsoppa sleeping in the daytime divātaraṁ rather late; later on in the day divāvihāra seclusion for rest and meditation by day (after the midday meal) diviya divine; heavenly; belonging to gods; supernatural; magical, marvelous; (same as dibba) divya null diyaḍḍha one and a half dīyamāna being given dīyati gives; makes a gift; yields; applies ḍiyati null dīyittha null diyyamāna null diyyati null dohala a craving in pregnancy; what is craved dohaḷa null dohāpeti null dohati null doḷasa twelve doḷasaka a set of twelve domanassa (mental) distress, dejection, unhappiness; ill-humor domanassaṭṭhāniya being a cause of dejection domanassavedaniya entailing feelings of dejection domanassindriya the sensation faculty of dejection; unhappiness doṇa a bucket; a measure of capacity; to the amount of a dona doṇapāka a dona measure of food doṇī a wooden trough or tub; a trough dosa null dosagāmi(n) influenced by ill-will or hostility dosagaru obedient to ill-will dosagati a wrong course of behavior because of ill-will dosaggi the fire of ill-will dosahetuka caused by ill-will dosaneyya null dosanīya producing ill-will or hostility; causing anger dosantara inwardly hostile; activated by ill-will dosapakata produced, influenced by ill-will dosārita improperly readmitted dosinā moonlight; a clear moonlit night dosinapuṇṇamāsī null dosināpunnamāsī a clear full-moon night dovacassa the state of not being amenable to criticism or advice, of being refractory, intractable dovacassatā null dovārika a gatekeeper; a janitor, a doorkeeper dovāriya null du-osārita improperly readmitted du(g)guṇa null dubbalaka (one) who is week, of little strength dubbalīkarana (adjective) weakening dubballa null dubbalya feebleness; unfitness dubbha injuring, hurting, deceiving dubbhati injures; hurts (+accusative, genitive, or locative); deceives betrays dubbhida difficult to be broken or torn asunder dubbiññapaya null dubbinodaya hard to drive away or dispel dubbisodha hard to clean dubbuddhi(n) foolish; ignorant dubbuṭṭhika lack of rain; drought dūbha null dubhatomukha with an opening on both sides dubhaya of both kinds dubhayaṁ as well (?) duccaja difficult to give up; hard to give away duccajja null duccara difficult to practice, hard to do duccarita (adjective) badly or wrongly performed or observed; (neuter masculine) wrong action; evil practice duccintitacinti(n) thinking bad or foolish thoughts duccola wearing poor clothes; wearing a robe made from poor cloth duccoḷa null duddada hard to give duddama difficult to manage or tame duddamaya null duddamiya hard to tame or manage duddasa difficult to see; hard to understand duddasika disagreeable to the sight; of unpleasing appearance, ugly duddassika null duddhakhīra with the milking done, who has milk (from the cow) duddikkha hard to look at duddiṭṭha not seen properly, ill-examined; a bad sight duddiṭṭharūpa an extremely bad sight duddiṭṭhi whose views are bad or false duddiṭṭhi(n) null dudikkha null dugga (adjective) hard to travel; difficult of access; impassable duggaha taking hold of wrongly; a bad seizing duggahīta taken improperly; grasped badly or wrongly; wrongly apprehended; what is wrongly grasped, a mistaken opinion or belief, duggata having a wretc.hed (re) -birth; poor, unfortunate, ill-fated duggati a wretc.hed (re) -birth or state of existence; an ill destiny; misfortune, poverty duggatigamana going to a wretc.hed existence duggatigāmin(n) leading to a wretc.hed existence duhāpeti null duhara null dūhara hard to be taken away duhati milks (a cow); extracts (milk); draws out, yields; fills dūhati null duhitika in a poor condition; stricken by hunger; where food is scarce; where survival is difficult dujivha null dujjaha hard to give up dujjāna difficult to know; hard to understand dujjāta of ignoble birth; ignoble dujjaya hard to conquer; hard to win dujjivha null dujjivīta a hard life; a miserable life; an evil life duka a set of two, a collection of two, a dyad; a section consisting of sets of two dukanipāta a section consisting of sets of two dukathā a wrong discourse, harmful talk dukhita null dukkara (what is) hard to do; difficult to perform or practice; (it is) hard, a difficult thing dukkarakārikā who does what is hard to do dukkaratara harder to do; more difficult dukkata wrong action dukkaṭa (adjective and neuter) wrongly or wickedly done; badly made; badly arranged; what is wrongly done; an evil or wrong action dukkha (adjective) painful; unpleasant; bringing pain or distress; uneasy, uncomfortable; not what one wants; wrong dukkhabhikiṇṇa overwhelmed by desires dukkhadhivaha bringing, producing dukkha dukkhadhivāha bringing, producing dukkha dukkhadukkha the trouble that is physical or mental pain or distress dukkhadukkhatā null dukkhakkhanda the agglomeration of dukkha; a mass of discomfort or distress dukkhaṁ in discomfort; uneasily; in pain dukkhama hard to bear dukkhanirodha the stopping, ceasing, ending, of dukkha dukkhanirodhagāmi(n) leading to the ending of dukkha dukkhapaṭikkūla averse to pain or distress; finding pain repugnant dukkhappaṭikkūla null dukkhasamudaya the cause, origin, of dukkha dukkhatā pain, distress, trouble dukkhatta the being painful or difficult dukkhāvaha bringing dukkha dukkhāvakkanta entered, overcome by dukkha dukkhavedanīya entailing painful or unpleasant feelings or experiences dukkhavepakka having painful or unpleasant consequences dukkhavinaya the removal of dukkha dukkhetta poor, infertile land dukkhi(n) pained, distressed dukkhindriya the faculty of pain, of distress dukkhita in pain; ill; distressed dukkhotiṇṇa entered, overcome, by dukkha dukkhudaya null dukkhuddaya null dukkhudraya resulting in pain or distress; in dukkha dukkhupasamana extinguishing dukkha dukūlasandāna with halters of dukūla cloth (?); with coverings of dukūla cloth (?) dullabha rare; difficult to obtain or find; scarce dullabhatara more difficult to obtain; very rare duma a tree dumāsika of two months growth dumāsikaṁ within two months (?) dumavhaya (who) is named after a tree dummana sad; low spirited dummedhi(n) unintelligent; ignorant dumūlaka null dunnaya hard to infer or interpret dunniggaha hard to control dunnihata not properly settled dunnikkhama hard to get out dunnikkhasa hard to draw out or extract dunnikkhitta badly or wrongly placed, poorly set out; not laid aside or stored properly dunnisārita null dunnissārita incorrectly suspended dunnīta badly or wrongly determined or interpreted; badly led dunnivāraya difficult to restrain; hard to hold back dunnivattha (adjective) improperly dressed dupaṇṇa with two leaves dupaṭṭa of a double thickness; a double thickness of material; a robe of double material dupaṭṭhāka difficult to attend or nurse dūpaṭṭhāka difficult to attend or nurse duppadālaya hard to pierce, to tear apart duppadāliya null duppadhaṁsiya hard to attack, unassailable duppajaha hard to give up duppamuñca hard to loosen; difficult to untie; hard to release duppariyogāha hard to go deeply into; hard to reach the bottom of, hard to fathom duppasaha hard to overcome; irresistible duppatimantiya null duppaṭimantiya hard to answer or refute; hard to argue with duppaṭinissaggi(n) unwilling to let go, renounce; hard to persuade to give up duppaṭivijjha difficult penetrate, to understand duppaṭivinodaya hard to get rid of duppaṭivinodiya hard to dispel, get rid of duputta with two sons dūrā from afar; at a distance durābhaṭṭha badly or wrongly spoken durabhirama difficulty of delight in durabhisambhava difficult to do, hard to attain; difficult to endure duraccaya difficult to overcome; hard to get beyond or crossover duradhigama hard to attain duradhivāsa hard to live in durāgata not welcome; unwanted; ill-come; an ill coming durājāna difficult to know or understand dūrakantana cutting far off; banishment (?) durakkhāta badly preached dūraṁ a long way; far dūrama difficulty of enjoyment in; it is difficult to enjoy dūraṅgama going a long way; far reaching durannaya hard to accomplish; difficult to find out, to fathom; hard to follow duranubodha hard to understand duranurakkhiya hard to protect or guard durāsada hard or dangerous to approach; difficult to attack; difficult to be met with, unparalleled dūratara further away; more distant duratikkama hard to pass, to go beyond; hard to escape from durativatta hard to get beyond dūrato from afar; at a distance durāvāsa hard to live in dūre far off; at a distance dūrepāti(n) shooting at a distance; hitting from far off duropaya difficult to heal durubbaha hard to extract durupasaṅkama hard to approach durūpasaṅkama null durupeta in an evil state; ill-endowed durūpeta in an evil state; ill-endowed dūsaka (one) who dirties or defiles; who spoils or harms; a violator; an offender, a malefactor dūsanīya null dūsayati null dūsesi null dūsesuṁ null dūseti dirties, defiles; violates; spoils, damages dūsi(n) defiling; spoiling; violating dūsita violated; defiled, spoiled, harmed dussa cloth; clothes dussacālanī a cloth sieve dussaddhāpaya hard to convince; hard to make believe dussaka null dussamādaha hard to settle, hard to make still dussaṁhara hard to collect hard; hard to gather together dussamuṭṭhāpaya hard to raise dussanīya null dussapallaṭṭhikā a posture held with the help of a cloth dussapata a cloth screen dussapaṭṭa a strip of cloth dussati null dussavaṭṭi a roll of cloth; fringe of a cloth dussaveṇi a twist of plait of a cloth dussi null dussīlya bad conduct; unwholesome doing dūta a messenger; envoy; a proxy dūtaka a messenger dūtenūpasamapadā null dūteyya errand; commission; carrying of messages; a message; messages dutiya (adjective) the second; a second; the next; a second kind of dutīya null dutiyaka (adjective) a second; a further dutiyakaṁ a second time, further dutiyakulika (one) belonging to a second, another, family dutiyaṁ a second time; again dutiyya null dūtopasampadā ordination by means of a messenger or proxy duttakkita incorrectly conjectured; badly thought out duttappaya hard to satisfy duttara difficult to cross over, to pass beyond duṭṭha null duṭṭhagahaṇika whose digestion is upset duṭṭhāruka an angry or corrupt sore duṭṭhārukā null duṭṭhulla null duṭṭhullabhāṇi(n) of unseemly speech; speaking lewdly duṭṭhullagāhi(n) holding to what is wrong duttitikkha hard to endure dūtūpasampadā null duvagga a group of two; consisting of a group of two duvaṅgula null duvāra null duvassa of two years’ standing; one who has been ordained for two years duvidha null duvidhena in two ways; as of two kinds; in a twofold way duvijātā a woman who has given birth twice duviññapaya difficult to teach duvinodaya null duvūpasamaya hard to calm; hard to settle dvādasa (number) twelve dvādasaka null dvādasaki(n) consisting of twelve dvādasama the twelfth dvādasamāsika consisting of twelve months dvādasamāsiya null dvādasanahuta (numbering) 120, 000 dvādasaporisa measuring the height of twelve men dvādasapurisa involving twelve men dvādasavassa twelve years old dvādasayojana extending twelve yojanas dvādhiṭṭhita improperly taken possession of dvāgārika taking alms from (only) two houses dvākāra of poor appearance; with poor characteristics dvākkhāta badly preached, incorrect dvālopika living on only two portions of alms dvaṅgula (neuter) the breadth of two fingers; (adjective) measuring two finger-breadths dvaṅgulakappa two finger-breadth practice dvaṅgulapañña with ‘two finger’ understanding (with little understanding; or whose understanding is in her two fingers) dvaṅgulipañña null dvāra a door; a doorway, an entrance; a passage dvārabāhā a doorpost dvārabhatta food placed before the door dvārakosa a door-frame; the area surrounding a door dvārasālā a gatehouse; a room over the gate dvāsattati seventy two dvāsaṭṭhi sixty two dvāsīti eighty two dvaṭṭhi (according to commentary) sixty two dvattikkhattuṁ two or three times dvattiṁsa thirty two dvattiṁsā null dvattiṁsaṁ null dvattiṁsati null dvāvāṭṭa null dvāvīsa twenty two dvāvīsatima the 22nd dvaya (adjective) twofold, double, of two kinds dvayagāmi(n) involving a double meaning or falsehood dvayakāri(n) doing both (good and bad actions) dvayaṁdvayasamāpatti sexual intercourse dvayatā the being of two parts; a pair dvayena in two ways; as of two kinds dve twice dvecattālīsa null dvecattāḷīsa forty two dvecattārīsa null dvecatu(r) null dvedhā null dvedhikajāta holding two opinions; separated into two sides dvejjha the possibility of two sides or interpretations; ambiguity; doubt, uncertainty dvemāsa a period of two months dvenavuti ninety two dvepaññāsa fifty two dvepaṇṇāsa null dvesattati seventy two dvevācika using or involving two utterances or proclamations dvevācikaṁ null dvevassahassāyuka having a lifespan of 2000 years dvevassatāyuka having a lifespan of 200 years dvevīsati(ṁ) twenty two dvi two; two people; two things; iic also: twice dvi(r) twice dvicatu(r) two times four, eight dvicaturaṅgagāmi(n) which moves with eight constituent parts (?); which leads those with eight characteristics (?) dvidhā in two ways; in two parts; on two sides dvidhāpatha a place where two roads meet, a fork in the road; a divided path dvidugamavaratarahanutta having the jaw of the best of the quadrupeds dviguṇa double, doubled; of double thickness; twice as much as, twice as many as; ~a, ~ena, adverb, twice; twice as much dvīha a period of two days dvīhapaṭicchanna concealed for two days dvīhatīha a period of two or three days dvīhika coming every third day; missing two days dvīhitika null dvīhitika null dvija one (who) is born or produced twice; ~ especially a bird dvijāti having two births; a brahman dvijivha double-tongued; false-tongued dvijjha null dvika a dyad; pair; couple dvikkhattuṁ twice dvikuṭika consisting of two houses dvimāsa null dvimūlaka having two roots; having two bases dvimūlika null dvipad having two feet, a biped dvipada having to feet, a biped dvipādaka having two feet, a biped dviporisa measuring the height of two men dviporisaṁ to the height of two men dvirāvaṭṭa with two turns; with two whirlpools dvisahassa two thousand; of two thousand dvisahassakkhattuṁ 2000 times dvisamuṭṭhānika having two fold origin; originating from two dvitā null dvitāla measuring the height of two palm trees dvitālaṁ to the height of two palm trees dvittā doubly so; twofold; indeed, certainly dvittikkhattuṁ two or three times dviyojanasatika measuring 200 yojanas edha growing, prospering edhati prospers, grows strong; becomes happy edhittha null edisa like this, like so; such a …; of such a kind; such a thing, something like this edisaka like this, like so; of such a kind; such a thing ehi used especially as introductory particles of exhortation, encouragement or summons (followed usually by an imperative or future): come! come on! ehibhadantika (one) who accepts an invitation (to take alms) ehibhikkhu The oldest formula of admission to the order: “come, O monk”; one ordained by the formula “ehi bhikkhu” ehibhikkhunī one ordained by the formula “ehi bhikkhunī”, i.e. “come, nun!” ehipassika suitable to come and see, fitting to be shown ehisāgatavādi welcoming: saying “come, you are welcome” ehisāgatavādin welcoming: saying “come, you are welcome” ehisi null ehisvāgatavādi welcoming: saying “come, you are welcome” ehisvāgatavādin welcoming: saying “come, you are welcome” eja disturbance, emotion ejā motion, disturbance, agitation; emotion ejānuga following, under the influence of, emotion eka one; only one; a single; one of two or many eka-m-eka each (one), each separate (one); one by one; (repeated:) each… one each… eka-m-ekaṁ one by one; singly ekabhattika eating only one meal a day; eating only before noon ekabīji ‘having one seed’, the most advanced type of sotāpanna, who will become an arahat in his next life as a man ekabījin ‘having one seed’, the most advanced type of sotāpanna, who will become an arahat in his next life as a man ekacara going about or living alone; solitary ekacāri going about or living alone; solitary ekacārin going about or living alone; solitary ekacariyā going about or living alone, solitariness; a solitary life ekacca a, a certain; someone, something; anyone; (plural) some, certain; some people ekacca-asassatika believing in the non-eternality of some things ekacca-sassatika believing in the eternality of some things; professing partial eternalism ekaccika single, of a single thickness ekacciya single, of a single thickness ekachiggala having one hole ekachiggaḷa having one hole ekadā once, at one time; at some time; sometimes ekādasa (number) eleven ekādasaka a section dealing with a group or groups of eleven ekādasama the eleventh ekadesa (masculine) one place; one part ekadhippāya single interpretation; a single wish or intention; what is meant or intended for one; having a single wish or intention; having a single interpretation, conveying only one sense ekadhītikā an only daughter ekadvīhikā one day; two days etc.; after one or two days ekagārika attacking and robbing isolated houses ekagga (adjective) having one point, (with attention) fixed on one point or object; closely attentive, intent; especially concentrated in samādhi ekaggacitta with mind intent, with thoughts concentrated on one object ekaggatā concentration on one object, intentness; calm ekaghana being a single mass; quite solid ekaguṇaṁ once ekāhaṁ for one day, during one day ekāhena in one day, in a single day; during that same day ekāhenamata who has been dead for one day, being a day old corpse ekāhika coming every other day, missing a day ekaja born once ekajāla a single mass of flames; being a single mass of flames ekajjhaṁ at one time; in one place; together, altogether ekaka (adjective) alone; by oneself; only…; a single; the only… ekakamma a single or the same official act (of the saṅgha) ekāki alone, solitary ekākika alone, solitary ekākin alone, solitary ekākiya alone, solitary ekakuṭika consisting of a single house ekālopika living on only one portion of alms ekamaṁsakhala a single mash or mass of flesh ekamana fixing the mind upon one thing; attentive ekamantaṁ (eka-m-antaṁ) to one side (showing respect); at a respectful distance ekamante apart, at a distance; in private, on one’s own; in a solitary place ekaṁsa one part ekaṁsabhavita developed in one part; practiced for one aspect ekaṁsavacana an expression of certainty or affirmation ekaṁsavāda speaking with absolute certainty; having absolute views ekaṁsavyākaraṇiya answerable; to be answered with certainty, or with an absolute affirmation ekaṁsena with certainty, with assurance; certainly, absolutely, definitely ekaṁsika determined; certain; assured ekamūlaka (what is) based on one item; (a statement or exposition) concerned with one item ekamūlika (what is) based on one item; (a statement or exposition) concerned with one item ekanavuta 91st ekanavutikappa the 91st eon ekaṅga one part; one characteristic; one factor ekaṅgadassi seeing only one part, one aspect ekaṅgadassin seeing only one part, one aspect ekaṅgahīna deficient in one respect; lacking one attribute ekantaṁ solely; exclusively; absolutely; wholly; invariably ekantaṁgata with utter devotion or certainty; taking one side; following one alternative ekantaṁgatalomi (a bed with) a kind of rug or covering ekantaṁgatalomī (a bed with) a kind of rug or covering ekantaṁgatalomin (a bed with) a kind of rug or covering ekantaṁkusalāyatika (according to commentary) coming from what is absolutely good, resulting form what is good; or perhaps; producing what is absolutely good in the future ekantarīka an interval of one; aṁ, -āya, with something between; with an interval of one (year); alternately ekantarīkaṁ with something between; with an interval of one (year); alternately ekantarīyā with something between; with an interval of one (year); alternately ekantika invariability; certainty; invariable; certain ekapada one word, a single word; a single expression ekapalāsika with a single layered sole ekapariyākata wound around once ekapassayika sleeping on one side only ekārāmatā delight in solitude ekarukkhika made from one tree ekasālaka containing one hall ekāsana sitting alone; being alone, being separate ekāsanabhojana eating only a single meal (a day); food at only a single meal ekāsani eating only at one sitting each day; (or possibly: sitting alone) ekāsanika one who eats each day only once, only at one sitting ekāsanin eating only at one sitting each day; (or possibly: sitting alone) ekasārīrika relating to one body; connected with one body ekasata 101 or 100 ekasattati 71 ekasaṭṭhi 61 ekaseyya lying or sleeping alone; being alone; a solitary lodging; a single lodging ekatimsā (number) 31 ekatiṁsa (number) 31 ekatiya a certain; some ekato on one side, on one part; on each side; to one side; separately ekato-upasampanna ordained in (only) one saṅgha) ekatodhāra with a single cutting edge ekatokāja a carrying pole with a load at one end ekatopakkhika supporting one side, belonging to one party ekatovaṇṭikamālā a garland with stalk(s) on one side ekatta oneness, unity; identity; integration; a collective idea; a single concept; the single number, the singular ekattakāya having bodies of the same nature, having uniform bodies ekattanirata devoted to (or devotion to) solitariness or unity ekattasaññi having a notion of unity or identity; (ekattasaññi(n)) ekattasaññin having a notion of unity or identity; (ekattasaññi(n)) ekattavāsa living together ekattha in one place; in one and the same place; in only one place ekaṭṭha having one meaning; having the same sense ekattimsā (number) 31 ekattiṁsa (number) 31 ekavācika a single utterance; a single proclamation ekavaraka the one and only husband ekavassa of one year’s standing; having been ordained for one year ekavassaṁ for one year; in one year ekavatthuka having the same basis or ground; relating to the same matter ekavihāri living alone; solitary ekavihārin living alone; solitary ekavīsa 21 ekavīsaṁ 21 ekāyana narrow, passable by only one person; being the only way ekeka one each; one … each; single ekībhāva becoming one; uniting, union; oneness ekindriya having only one sense faculty ekodaka all water; covered in water; nothing but water ekodakībhhūta being all water; covered in water; (a world) consisting of or covered in water, nothing but water ekodi woven into one’, integrated, unified; withdrawn, apart ekodibhāva integration, unification; apartness, withdrawal ekodibhāvita made unified; brought to integration ekodibhūta integrated, unified; withdrawn, apart ekodihoti is or becomes integrated, unified; is apart ekodikaroti integrates; unifies ekodikatabba null ekodikātabba null ekuddesa (masculine) a single or the same instruction; a single or the same recitation, a shared recitation (of the pātimokkha) ekūnapaññāsa 49 ekūnapaṇṇāsa 49 ekūnapaññāsaṁ 49 ekūnatiṁsa 29, 29th; 29 (yrs. old) ekūnatiṁsaṁ 29 ekūnatiṁsaṁkkhattuṁ 29 times ekūnavīsa 19 ekūnavīsaṁ 19 ekūnavīsati 19 ekūnavīsatima 19th ekuttarika a section of sets increasing by one ekuttariya a section of sets increasing by one eḷagalāgumba an eḷagala thicket elagalavāca whose speech is accompanied by the dripping of saliva eḷaka a ram; a male goat, a billy goat eḷakā an ewe; a female goat; a nanny-goat eḷaka-m-antaraṁ within the threshold; across the threshold eḷakacamma sheep’s skin; goat’s skin eḷakaloma sheep’s hair; goat’s hair elakapādaka supported on a block (like a threshold stone) or with feet shape like those of a ram eḷakasamāna like sheep or goats eḷakasaṁvāsa living like a sheep; a sheep’s life eḷakī an ewe; a female goat; a nanny-goat elamūga unintelligent, stupid (as a sheep); (perhaps with association with impaired speech) eḷamūga unintelligent, stupid (as a sheep); (perhaps with association with impaired speech) elaṇḍa the castor oil plant; (or perhaps a kind of creeper) em so; in this way ena him, her, it (referring to someone or something already mentioned); this, that; this one eṇeyyajaṅgha with legs like the black antelope’s eṇeyyaka a kind of torture enījaṅgha with legs like the black antelope’s (one of the 32 characteristics of a mahāpurisa) eragu a kind of grass erakavattika a kind of torture eraṇdakatela castor oil eraṇdatela castor oil erayati (also ereti) makes move, stirs; makes sound; raises one’s voice erayita spoken, uttered ereti (also erayati) makes move, stirs; makes sound; raises one’s voice erita moved, stirred esa seeking; searching for esana seeking, seeking to obtain; search (especially for food or means of living) esanā seeking, seeking to obtain; search (especially for food or means of living) esāna null esanī a probe esat null esati seeks, seeks to obtain; searches for esi null esikā a post, a pillar (usually placed at the city gate;) esikaṭṭhāyiṭṭhita as firm or enduring as a pillar esitvā null essāmi null essanti null essati null eta this (referring to what is nearest in space or in thought; or to what immediately precedes or follows); often pointing out someone or something: here is …, there is … etad this (referring to what is nearest in space or in thought; or to what immediately precedes or follows); often pointing out someone or something: here is …, there is … etadantika having this as an end, having an end here; ending thus etadatthiya having this purpose; useful for this etādisa such (a), of such a kind; such as (with or without correlative) etādisikā such (a), of such a kind etadohi this as limit; to this limit, as far as this etageha having longings for this, desiring this etaparama having this (which usually follows) as their highest limit, i.e. only as good as this, no better than this; only as great as this, no more than this etaparamaṁ as well as, only as well as, on as much as etarahi now; a this time; nowadays, at the present time; especially (a) in relation to the past and/or future; parallel (in direct speech) to tena kho pana samayena (+ historic present) etase null etāva so great, of such extent etāvat so great, of such extent etāvataparama having such as its highest limit, i.e. only as good as such, only so great etāvataparamaṁ only to such an extent, only as greatly etave null etena upāyena in this way, thus; by this means etha used especially as introductory particles of exhortation, encouragement or summons (followed usually by an imperative or future): come! come on! eti goes; goes towards; reaches, obtains; reaches (a state); is involved (in) etta so much, just so much ettaka such; so much, so great; so many; this much (expressing a total); just so much, only so much (and no more) ettakaṁ so much; so long ettakena by so much; to such an extent ettāvatā by just so much, with this much; to such an extent; so far, to that extent; thus ettha here; there; (functioning as locative of eta(d) in this, in these; in regard to this or these; in this respect; in this case, in that case; in these circumstances etthantare in this interval (of time or space); in the time between these; in the area between these; in the meantime etto from here, from there; than this; that way eva that very…, the same …; exactly that…; just … evācāra of such behavior, of such conduct evadassi seeing in this way; having such insight evadassin seeing in this way; having such insight evaṁ so in this way; in such a way; like this evam eva just so, just like that evaṁbhāvi certain to become like this evaṁbhāvin certain to become like this evaṁdiṭṭhi holding such a belief, having such a theory evaṁdiṭṭhika holding such a belief, having such a theory evaṁdiṭṭhin holding such a belief, having such a theory evaṁgata in such a state; of such a kind evaṁgatika producing or having a future course of this kind evaṁjacca of such and such a class; of this kind of family evaṁkāri acting this way evaṁkārin acting this way evaṁrūpa having such a physical form or appearance evaṁsaddha having such a reputation evaṁsaññi perceiving in this way; of such awareness or perception evaṁsaññin perceiving in this way; of such awareness or perception evaṁvādi professing such a doctrine; declaring a view like this evaṁvādin professing such a doctrine; declaring a view like this evaṁvihāri living in such a state or way evaṁvihārin living in such a state or way evaṁvihitaka determined, effected in this way evarūpa of such a kind, like this; such a thing; usually referring to something just mentioned or summing up a description just given: such a…; like that; such a thing gabbha womb of humans and animals gabbhakaraṇa (the art of) causing or aiding conception gabbhaṁ gaṇhāti conceives, becomes pregnant gabbhapātana causing a miscarriage; a means of causing a miscarriage, especially a concoction gabbhaseyyā the womb gabbhavokkanti coming into being of the fetus in the womb; conception gabbhi(n) (adjective) pregnant; filled; swelling; (feminine) a pregnant woman gabbhinī null gaccha a small tree; a bush gaccha(t) null gacchaṁ null gacchamāna going; moving; walking gacchāmi null gacchanta null gacchanti null gacchasi null gacchati of people, animals, rivers, roads etc.) goes; moves, walks; goes away, leaves; goes to (+ accusative or santike/santikaṁ etc.); often with absolutive, eg. ādāya ~ati, gahetvā ~ati, goes with, takes; pahāya ~ati, goes off without, leaves behind gacchi null gacchiṁsu null gacchisi null gacchissam null gacchissāmi null gacchissanti null gacchissati null gaddhabādhipubba who was a previous vulture catcher (?); belonging to a family of vulture catchers (?) gadduhana null gaddūhana the time required for milking a cow; short time gaddulabhaddha tied with a leash, on a leash gādha null gādhati stands firm; has a firm footing gadhita (adjective) tied or bound; greedy, greedily desiring gadhitacitta with mind or though fettered; with heart greedily desirous (for) gadrabha an ass, a donkey gagana the sky gagghati will go (of future of gacchati?) gaha null gāha null gahaka a house; a small house gāhaka (one) who receives, a recipient; one who holds gahakāra null gahakāraka a house-builder, a mason, a carpenter gahakūṭa the roof peak of a house gahana (adjective) deep; dense, thick; a dense of growth; entangled, overgrown, impenetrable gahaṇa seizing, taking hold of; grasping; grasp: acquiring gahananissita relying on or taking refuge in a hiding place gahaṇī a part of the body where heat assists digestion; its digestive heat gahapata belonging to or connected with a gahapati gahapataggi the householder’s fire gahapatāggi null gahapatānī mistress of the house; wife of a gahapati gahapati null gahapaticīvara a robe or robe-material given by a householder gahapatika (masculine) one who belongs to the gahapati class gahapatikula a family or community of the gahapati class gahapatimahāsala a very wealthy householder gahapatinecayika a tradesman who is a skillful accumulator; a rich tradesman gahapatiratana the householder’s treasure (one of the seven treasures of the cakkavatti(n) emperor) gāhāpeti null gāhāpettaba null gāhāpetvā null gahaṭṭha one who lives in a house; a house holder; a lay-person gahaṭṭhā null gahaṭṭhaka belonging to or suitable for one who lives in a house gahavibhava domestic property or wealth gahāya null gāhayati null gāhāyati null gahessaṁ null gahessāmi null gahessanti null gahessati null gaheta(r) one who takes hold of; one who grasps; one who mentions gahetabba null gahetuṁ null gāhetuṁ null gahetvā taking; holding; seizing; with; mentioning; referring to gahetvā taking; holding; seizing; with; mentioning, referring to gāhetvā null gahetvāna null gāhikā null gahissati null gahita (adjective) taken, seized, grasped in the mind, apprehended, learnt; mentioned, referred to, meant gahīta null gaja an elephant gajjati emits a deep sound; roars; thunders; asserts strongly, shouts; blusters gajjayitvā without causative sense? gajjita roaring; thundering; strong assertion gajjita(r) one who roars or thunders; one makes strong assertions gaḷa a fish hook gaḷagaḷāyanta null gaḷagaḷāyati thunders; roars galagaṇḍhi(n) having a swelling on the neck; having a goiter galaggāha seizing by the throat galaka the throat; the neck galappavedhaka trembling of the neck or throat galati drops; drips; oozes (with liquid or source as subject); falls down (to) or off; vanishes gaḷati null gaḷayati null galeti causes to drop or drip gāḷha tight, firm, strong, vehement gāḷhabandhanaṁ bandhati binds fast; ties up tightly gāḷhaṁ strongly, firmly; vehemently; too firmly gāḷhapalepanena smeared with a thick ointment; thickly smeared gāḷhena null gāḷhita pervaded; penetrated (by); pressed together gāḷhūpalepanena smeared with a thick ointment; thickly smeared gāma an inhabited place; a village; the people of a village gāma'ūpacāra the environs; the outskirts of a village gāma(k)khetta village land or territory gāmabandhana restraint in a village, restriction to a villager gāmadhamma sexual intercourse gāmagāmika a village headman gāmaghāta (masculine) sacking or plundering of a village gāmaghātaka (one) who plunders a village; a marauder gāmaka a small village; a village gāmakamma village work; village affairs gāmakūṭa a village magistrate; a village chief (with a connotation of dishonesty?) gāmakūṭaka null gamana going; moving; (freedom of) movement; walking; going away; setting out; departure gāmaṇḍala a young man; an (insolent?) village youth(?) a young cowherd gāmaṇī a village chief, headman; a leader, chief gāmaṇika a village chief, headman; a leader, chief gamanīya to be gone to; to be reached; attainable gāmanta the neighborhood of a village; a village gāmantaka the neighborhood of a village; a village gāmantara another village, a different village, the next village gāmantarakappa “different village practice”, the practice of eating a second time in a different village gāmapada null gāmapaddhana null gāmapaṭṭa the site of a village gāmapaṭṭana null gāmapoddava one given to bodily embellishments gāmapūṭava null gamayati null gāmayati null gambhīra (adjective) deep; unfathomable gambhīrapañña (one) of profound wisdom; understanding abstruse matters gambhīrasīta yielding a deep furrow gambhīrāvabhāsa appearing deep gambhīrobhāsa null gameti causes to go (to); sends gāmeti causes to go (to); sends gami(n) null gāmi(n) going, moving (to), directed to; relating to, influenced by; behaving gamika (one) about to take a journey; (one) intending to leave; (one) on a journey, away from home gāmika a villager; a leading villager; a village headman gamikābhisankhāra the impetus or determination to go; preparations for going gamikacitta an intention to go on a journey; to leave gamina about to take a journey; on a journey gamissaṁ null gamissāma null gamissami null gamissanti null gamissasi null gamissati null gamittha null gamiya null gamiyābhisankhāra null gamiyacitta null gamma belonging to a village (life), common, vulgar; especially relating to the sensual pleasures of the village gaṇa a multitude of numbers, a group; a tribe gaṇabandhandhika (connected with) joining together a group; acquiring a following ganabhandiya (connected with) joining together a group; acquiring a following gaṇabhojana receiving and eating food in a group gaṇaka one who counts; recons; calculates; an accountant; a treasurer gaṇakamahāmatta a minister of finance; an accountant gaṇakamahāmattā null gaṇaki the wife of an accountant (or astrologer?) gaṇamaggena by groups gaṇana null gaṇanā reckoning; counting; calculation; computation; numbering gaṇangaṇaūpāhanā null gaṇangaṇūpāhanā sandal(s) with soles of many layers gaṇāpeti null gaṇapūra (one) who makes up the number gaṇapūraka one who completes the quorum gaṇārāma finding pleasure in a company gaṇavassika used for several years gaṇaya(t) counts numbers; adds up; reckons; calculates gañchasi null gañchi null gañchisi null gañchissaṁ null gaṇḍa a swelling; a lump; a boil; boils gaṇdamattikā worm casts? gandha odor; smell; scent gandhabba one of a class of heavenly beings, noted specially as musicians gandhabbahatthaka a wooden instrument for rubbing the body with powder while bathing gandhabbakāyika belonging to the assembly of the gandhabbas gandhabbi a female gandhabba gandhagandha perfume from fragrant plants (?); a totally fragrant plant (?) gandhagandhi(n) fragrant with scent gandhālepa a fragrant or perfumed ointment gandhāra the name of a magic spell gandhārī null gandhātu the constituent element that is odor gandhayātana an object of sense that is odor gandhohana null gandhūhana considering a fragrant substance gandhūpahāra the bringing of a foul smelling or fragrant substance gaṇḍikā suffering form boils gaṇḍīkādhāna the placing of a cornice (?) gaṇḍiya null gaṇdupāda null gaṇḍuppāda a worm; an earthworm gaṇesi counted numbers; added up; reckoned; calculated gaṇetabba counts numbers; adds up; reckons; calculates gaṇetuṁ counts numbers; adds up; reckons; calculates gaṇetvā having counted numbers; added up; reckoned; calculated gaṇha null gaṇhanta null gaṇhāpeti null gaṇhati null gaṇhāti takes, takes hold of, grasps; gets, obtains; receives, accepts gaṇhayati null gaṇhiṁ null gaṇhiṁsu null gaṇhiya null gaṇī(n) one who has a company of followers or pupils; a teacher; a leader gaṇibhuta gathered in groups; large companies gaṇikā a courtesan, a prostitute gaṇita counted; numbered; reckoned; taken into account gaṇitabba null ganta(r) one who goes (to); (one who) will go gantabba (adjective) to be gone to; to be attained gantave null gantha tying, binding; a tie ganthāpeti null ganthati fastens, strings together; binds ganthayati null gantheti null ganthetvā having fastened, strung together; bound gaṇṭhi a knot; a tangle; a bunch; a knot tied in a garment (for keeping money) gaṇṭhikā a button; a toggle gaṇthikāphalaka a backing piece (of wood?) for the toggle? ganthita tied; bound ganthitāganthita bound together and not bound ganthitva null gantuṁ null gantvā null gantvāna null garahā reproach; censure garahamāna null garahanta null garahati reproaches; censures; dispraises; finds fault with (a person, action, or state) garaheti null garahi null garahita censured; dispraised (by, instrumental or genitive)